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My career isn’t always dangerous, but clients can be unpredictable
My name is Amy, and I’m what’s called a Computer Dominatrix. My clients are all long distance, we never interact face-to-face, and I have control over all of them. Some give me absolute control, some give me specific portions with boundaries. Some are married or dating, others are single. They all make use of my talents to give up control of at least part of their lives. When a new client contacts me, we exchange a few messages so I have some background about them, and I lay out what my services usually entail. I tell a few stories of what other clients have asked me to do for them, to help the new client select scenarios they would like to set up. Most of my clients have never had a Digital Dom before. So, giving them a few examples and options helps bolster their confidence. The usual set-up goes like this: my client installs some spyware on their computer that I control. It gives me the power to do things like lock their computer, see their screen, disable the keyboard, take over control of their computer, and get reports of what they’re doing on their computer. With this tool, I can perform my services. Some clients want me to watch their bank statements and shame them if they spend too much money or buy surprise things with their money as if I own the account. Other clients want me to monitor their porn usage and shame them for what they look up. Or, if I log in and catch them using porn, I should direct them to different porn of my choosing and force them to watch that instead. One even wanted me to try and break into his computer and install the spyware secretly. That was a fun client to work with. When it comes down to it, they just want to relinquish a little control over their lives. I understand where their desires come from, and knowing it helps me be a better Dom. Contrasting the fun times of my career, I’ve had a few mishaps and horrible things happen. I had one client sign up for my services. We messaged a few times to get to know one another before I agreed to accept him as a client. He was in his mid thirties, single, and wanted me to watch him look at porn and make random comments on the things he was watching. Really, not that abnormal for my choice of career. I had him sign an agreement that helps me avoid legal trouble if they try to report me for hacking (had this happen before), and we got started. I gave him the url where he could install my personal spyware, and he followed through. He only asked that I give him a little advance notice before I start watching, which I agreed to. Boundaries are important. I would check up on him twice a week, and send him a message before I did saying “I’m coming to check on you in ten minutes, you better be watching something good.” I would log in ten minutes later to the second and start either shaming him for his choice of videos or praise him for making the “right” choice. All of this was predetermined. Things were going fine with this client, and I balanced him with about 10 others. Being a Digital Dom makes it easy to spread your attention across many clients. Bonus if you can get clients from different time zones so they would log in at different times so you don’t have to multitask. I was about to check in with another client, when I mis-clicked in my software. See, my spyware (which I paid to be custom written after wishing for more features in commercial tools) lists my clients by most recently connected in one screen. When I add a new client, it can mess with the order of the page I am so used to mindlessly clicking through. I’ve since paid for that to get fixed and sort clients alphabetically, but this time I made a mistake. I clicked on this new client and connected to his computer. A gasp escaped my lips as I saw what he was looking at. I’ll leave that up to your imagination. It was some of the most fucked up porn I’ve ever seen. Involving victims of questionable age. And blood. If I could have slipped out of there, I would have. But this client requested a popup to appear whenever I connected so he would know I was there. That popup revealed my unexpected presence. Instead of panicking and trying to close the window, he calmly moved his mouse to the task bar and opened a text document. I was frozen while watching him type. I should have logged straight out, but I instead started to open a voice channel to tell him I was dropping him as a client. It was too much for me, and I decided to set that boundary early on in my career.
“Like what you see?”
He had typed into the word document, and the cursor blinked impatiently at me. I thought my voice would crack, so I took over the keyboard and typed back.
“I’m sorry, but I’m going to refund your money and no longer service you. Please uninstall this software and watch for your refund.”
He paused for a while, and I waited for him to respond once before I disconnected. He took too long, so I closed the window and took a deep breath while sitting back. I was feeling really disconcerted from what I’d watched. It wasn’t the first time a client had tried to show me illegal things during a session, but it always makes me sick when they do. I gave the reins over to another Digital Dom I have partnered with. We take over for each other if we feel ill or something. Just temporarily. I went to take a shower to wash out those images.
My computer started acting up more than a month later. So much had gone on since dropping that client that I didn’t connect the two at first. The computer would slow down for a few minutes, then resume its normal speed. I assumed it was because I hadn’t restarted in a while, so I restarted it. That seemed to fix the problem. When I had rebooted, the wifi slowed down considerably, enough for my roommate, Jess, to ask if I was downloading anything big. I had logged into the router to see if that also needed to be restarted when I noticed a device I didn’t recognize was connected to the wifi. I swallowed hard. RASPI was the name of the connected device. It had connected to the network three days ago. Some strangers' device was on our network. And they had to be nearby, at least within range of wifi. I immediately suspected that a neighbor had brute forced our wifi password and was now stealing internet. Before kicking the device off, I looked at the router’s traffic report. The device had a significant size of traffic in the last few days, but my computer used the most out of all of our devices. The device came in 5th place for most data used. It made sense that my computer was using so much bandwidth, but 75+ gigabytes in 3 days was excessive. My throat seized, and I immediately reached around to the back of my computer and unplugged the ethernet cable. Deep, primal panic set in. This was a very specific attack. It’s not the kind of hacking you can do en masse to install some ransomware or adware. Someone was targeting me or both of us. Someone who was willing to spend time brute forcing a wifi password and going after one specific machine on the network.
I called Lucas, the guy I hired to write my spyware for me, and filled him in on everything I knew. He knows perfectly well what his software is used for and isn’t weird about it. He agreed to take a look at my computer for a fee. So, trusting him as I have all my career, I installed a commercial remote desktop tool and let him connect. The moment I reconnected the computer to the internet, the router showed a spike in traffic again. I had him on a call while he worked, and I watched what he did carefully, trying my best to learn what he was doing so I could troubleshoot myself if this ever happened again. “Oh shit,” Lucas muttered. He had a traffic analyzer and computer process analyzer open on-screen. “Amy, I think you got hacked. Like, they’re downloading your hard drive!” “They’re what?!” I began to really panic. I had a lot of my clients information on this machine. Keys that let me log into their machines. Bitcoin Cash addresses and keys where I stored my fees. Now someone had them. They could easily start stealing and spending my thousands in accumulated fees and harass my clients. I’d lose a big chunk of my savings and my livelihood. Immediately, I took over the computer and shut Lucas out while I created new crypto addresses and started transferring money. The fees from transferring would make me lose a little money, but it was better than losing it all. I also started backing up the hard drive to several USB drives I had lying around. Just the important stuff like my files, personal photos, and client info. When I let Lucas back in, he got to work finding the process that was exfiltrating my data and shutting it down. He tracked down the executable that was running the show and downloaded it to his own computer before deleting it from mine. He promised to dissect it as best he could to figure out what it was doing. Before he did that, however, he started monitoring my system to make sure the virus had been truly cleared out. While watching my system, he gave me a task. “Walk around your apartment. Search everywhere and look for that rogue device. It’s been continuously connected for days, which means whoever is doing this is probably not camped out on the road. From the name, I’d guess it’s a Raspberry Pi -- a small computer about the size of a phone but two inches tall.” He sent me a picture of the type of device we were looking for. “They probably left it hidden somewhere, either connected to an outlet or with a large battery pack. Go and look for it,” he insisted. I got Jess to help me search the place top to bottom. Nothing. Not even outside in the bushes or on the back porch. We split up and went to our neighbors, asking if they’d seen anyone suspicious hanging around the building in the last week. No one on our floor had. I went upstairs and asked the same questions. Our upstairs neighbor said the only person he’d seen was a guy coming to update their satellite dish on the balcony. My throat seized up as I realized that could be them. I asked hesitantly if I could look at their dish. I didn’t know them, but briefly explained that someone had left a device lying around that was breaking into our wifi and that our next step was to call the police. They panicked at that, and let me check their balcony if I promised to keep them out of it if I called the cops. I agreed, knowing full well that they did drugs and would hate for the police to come around the apartment complex. There, on the balcony, was exactly what Lucas had told me to look for. A black box sat along the wall between the satellite and the wall the cable ran into. A power cord exited the box and connected to an outlet on the balcony. I cracked open the box with my fingers and found a circuit board inside, connected via usb to the outlet. The satellite cable passed straight through the box without connecting to anything. The box was a fake, made to look like it was doing something to the cable as it passed through. The circuit board looked exactly like the picture Lucas had shown me. There was our rogue device. I unplugged the device, fully aware that unplugging it would alert whoever was controlling it. They could assume it was disconnected accidentally, or they would think I had found it. Either way, I couldn’t just leave it. I thanked the neighbors and left with the whole box. Jess met me on the stairs, saying that Lucas had asked her to disconnect the internet on the computer and have me call him back. Jess stared in wide-eyed shock as I showed her what I’d found. The upstairs neighbors were well within range of our wifi for the device to connect. The job was only barely sloppy enough to detect. We were lucky I had found it at all.
On the phone Lucas sounded panicked. “They didn’t just copy your hard drive, they added files to it,” he squeaked. “Bad files. Bad pictures.” My jaw tightened, and I felt sick. I made the connection to the client I’d dropped. “Delete all your shit now,” Lucas was demanding. “You already backed up what you want, you need to destroy that hard drive. Smash it, burn it, bury it. Go get a new hard drive. Start as fresh as you can. I can help you get set back up if you want.” “I think I know what’ll happen,” I muttered. “He’ll call the police on me and tip them off that I have those… pictures. They’ll find it and arrest me for possession. Game over.” “He? You know who it is?” Lucas pressed. I told him about the client I’d dropped. “That’s why you need to torch your hard drives. Now. Both of you. Same with your phones. Who knows where else he’s been,” was Lucas’ advice. I won’t confirm or deny what I did with the hard drive or the device. If I destroyed it, it would technically be destruction of evidence. I ordered a new hard drive and reinstalled everything. I explained to my clients that I had lost internet connection for a couple of days, and didn’t end up losing any clients. I haven’t told the police everything. The last time I got involved with them, there was so much harassment from them about my career that I’d rather not have more negative interactions with them. It just isn’t worth it in this case. I kept my report short and simple: a guy I met online and dumped might try something and come to my house. I gave them the information the client gave me, but I suspect more and more that it was fake. Making a report will help if anything new happens. I’ve written about this before on other anonymous forums, specifically for other Doms. Because of those posts, a few journalists have reached out and are writing features based on me, my career, and these events. They should be published in the next few days. I’m just interested in sharing stories like this as publicly as possible, for awareness. Lucas explained that the Raspberry Pi was a tiny computer that had a cellular connection so the client could connect to it from anywhere in the world and try to break into my wifi. Once he had succeeded, the client had gone to work breaking into my computer and getting their malware installed. We still don’t know 100% how he did it. Lucas worked tirelessly to revise his software and remove vulnerabilities that could be used to trace me. We don’t know which vulnerabilities the client used, if any. We do know that there is one left, however. I know this because every once in a while, a client will show up in my software who I didn’t sign up. A new name and data every time. I don’t dare click it. I just know what will be waiting for me upon connection.
“Like what you see?”
Lucas hasn’t been able to track down how he’s injecting fake clients into the software. Until Lucas can fix it, all I can do is click carefully and not connect again by accident. I’m sure the client is using a modified version of my spyware, ready to do all kinds of damage the moment I connect. The guy is clearly an expert. Who knows how many other people he’s done something like this to. One thing is certain: he was prepared to conduct this attack. My career isn’t always dangerous, but the clients can be unpredictable.
CryptoDiffer teamHello, everyone!We are glad to meet here:Max Freeman (@maxfreeman4), Project Lead at Epic CashYoga Dude (@Yogadude), PR&Marketing at Epic CashXenolink (@Xenolink), Advisor at Epic Cash Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash Thanks Max, we are excited to be here! Yoga Dude PR&Marketing at Epic Cash Hello Everyone! Thank you for having us here! Xenolink Advisor at Epic Cash Thank you to the CryptoDiffer team and CryptoDiffer community for hosting us! CryptoDiffer teamLet`s start from the first introduction question:Q1: Can you introduce yourself to the community? What is your background and how did you join Epic Cash? Yoga Dude PR&Marketing at Epic Cash Hello! My background is Marketing and Business Development, I’ve been in crypto since 2011 started with Bitcoin, then Monero in 2014, Ethereum in 2015 and at some point Doge for fun and profit. I joined Epic Cash team in September 2019 handling PR and Marketing. I saw in Epic Cash what was missing in my previous cryptos — things that were missing in Bitcoin and Monero especially. Xenolink Advisor at Epic Cash Hello Cryptodiffer Community, I am not an original co-founder nor am I a developer for the Epic Cash project. I am however a community member that is involved in helping scale this project to higher levels. One of the many beauties of Epic Cash is that every single member in the community has the opportunity to be part of EPIC’s team, it can be from development all the way to content producing. Epic Cash is a community driven project. The true Core Team of Epic Cash is our community. I believe a community that is the Core Team is truly powerful. EPIC Cash has one of the freshest and strongest communities I have seen in quite a while. Which is one of the reasons why I became involved in this project. Epic displayed some of the most self community produced content I have seen in a project. I’m actually a doctor of medicine but in terms of my experience in crypto, I have been involved in the industry since 2012 beginning with mining Litecoin. Since then I have been doing deep dive analysis on different projects, investing, and building a network in crypto that I will utilize to help connect and scale Epic in every way I can. To give some credit to those people in my network that have been a part of helping give Epic exposure, I would like to give a special thanks to u/Tetsugan and u/Saurabhblr. Tetsugan has been doing a lot of work for the Japanese community to penetrate the Japanese market, and Japan has already developed a growing interest in Epic. Daku Sarabh the owner and creator of Crypto Daku Robinhooders, I would like to thank him and his community for giving us one of our first large AMA’s, which he has supported our project early and given us a free AMA. Many more to thank but can’t be disclosed. Also thank you to all the Epic Community leaders, developers, and Content producers! Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash I’m Max Freeman, which stands for “Maximum Freedom for Mankind”. I started working on the ideas that would become Epic in 2018. I fell in love with Bitcoin in 2017 but realized that it needs privacy at the base layer, fungibility, better scalability in order to go to the next level. CryptoDiffer team Really interesting backgrounds I must admit, pleasure to see the team that clearly has one vision of the project by being completely decentralized:) Q2: Can you briefly describe what is Epic Cash in 3–5 sentences? What technology stands behind Epic Cash and why it’s better than the existing one? Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash I’d like to highlight the differences between Epic and the two highest-valued privacy coin projects, Monero and Zcash. XMR has always-on privacy like Epic does, but at a cost: Its blockchain is over 20x more data intensive than Epic, which limits its possibilities for scalability. Epic’s blockchain is small and light enough to run a full node on cell phones, something that is in our product road map. ZEC by comparison can’t run on low end devices because of its zero knowledge based approach, and only 1% of transactions are fully private. Epic is simply newer, more advanced technology than prior networks thanks to Mimblewimble We will also add more algorithms to widen the range of hardware that can participate in mining. For example, cell phones and tablets based around ARM chips. Millions of people can mine Epic that can’t mine Bitcoin, and that will help grow the network rapidly. There are some great short videos on our YouTube channel https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQBFfksJlM97rgrplLRwNUg/videos that explain why we believe we have created something truly special here. Our core architecture derives from Grin, so we are fortunate to benefit on an ongoing basis from their considerable development efforts. We are focused on making our currency truly usable and widely available, beyond a store of value and becoming a true medium of exchange. Yoga Dude PR&Marketing at Epic Cash Well we all have our views, but in a nutshell, we offer things that were missing in the previous cryptos. We have sound fiscal emission schedule matching Bitcoin, but we are vastly more private and faster. Our blockchain is lighter than Bitcoin or Monero and our tech is more scalable. Also, we are unique in that we are mineable with CPUs and GPUs as well as ASICs, giving the broadest population the ability to mine Epic Cash. Plus, you can’t forget FUNGIBILITY 🙂 we are big on that — since you can’t have true privacy without fungibility. Also, please understand, we have HUGE respect to all the cryptos that came before us, we learned a lot from them, and thanks to their mistakes we evolved. Xenolink Advisor at Epic Cash To add on, what also makes Epic Cash unique is the ability to decentralize the mining using a tri-algo model of Random X (CPU), Progpow (GPU), and Cuckoo (ASIC) for an ability to do hybrid mining. I believe this is an issue we can see today in Bitcoin having centralized mining and the average user has a costly barrier of entry. To follow up on this one in my opinion one of the things we adopted that we have seen success for , in example Bitcoin and Monero, is a strong community driven coin. I believe having a community driven coin will provide a more organic atmosphere especially when starting with No ICO, or Premine with a fair distribution model for everyone. CryptoDiffer team Q3: What are the major milestones Epic Cash has achieved so far? Maybe you can share with us some exciting plans for future weeks/months? Yoga Dude PR&Marketing at Epic Cash Since we went live in September of 2019, we attracted a very large community of users, miners, investors and contributors from across the world. Epic Cash is a very international project with white papers translated into over 30 languages. We are very much a community driven project; this is very evident from our content and the amount of translations in our white papers and in our social media content. We are constantly working on improving our usability, security and privacy, as well as getting our message and philosophy out into the world to achieve mass adoption. We have a lot of exciting plans for our project, the plan is to make Epic Cash into something that is More than Money. You can tell I am the Marketing guy since my message is less about the actual tech and more about the usability and use cases for Epic Cash, I think our Team and Community have a great mix of technical, practical, social and fiscal experiences. Since we opened our YouTube channels content for community submissions, we have seen our content translated into Spanish, French, German, Polish, Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, Russian, and other languages Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash Our future development roadmap will be published soon and includes 4 tracks: Usability Mining Core Protocol Ecosystem Development Core Protocol Epic Server 2.9.0 — this release improves the difficulty adjustment and is aimed at making block emission closer to the target 60 seconds, particularly reducing the incidence of extremely short and long blocks — Status: In Development (Testing) Anticipated Release: June 2020 Epic Server 3.0.0 — this completes the rebase to Grin 3.0.0 and serves as the prerequisite to some important functional building blocks for the future of the ecosystem. Specifically, sending via Tor (which eliminates the need to open ports), proof of payment (useful for certain dex applications e.g. Bisq), and our native mobile app. Status: In Development (Testing) Anticipated Release: Fall 2020 Non-Interactive Transactions — this will enhance usability by enabling “fire and forget” send-to-address functionality that users are accustomed to from most cryptocurrencies. Status: Drawing Board Anticipated Release: n/a Scaling Options — when blocks start becoming full, how will we increase capacity? Two obvious options are increasing the block size, as well as a Lightning Network-style Layer 2 structure. Status: Drawing Board Anticipated Release: n/a Confidential Assets — Similar to Raven, Tari, and Beam, the ability to create independently tradable assets that ride on the Epic Blockchain. Status: Drawing Board Anticipated Release: n/a Usability GUI Wallet 2.0 — Restore from seed words and various usability enhancements — Status: Needs Assessment Anticipated Release: Fall 2020 Mobile App — Native mobile experience for iOS and Android. Status: In Development (Testing) Anticipated Release: Winter 2020 Telegram Integration — Anonymous payments over the Telegram network, bot functionality for groups. Status: Drawing Board Anticipated Release: n/a Mining RandomX on ARM — Our 4th PoW algorithm, this will enable tablets, cell phones, and low power devices such as Raspberry Pi to participate in mining. Status: Needs Assessment Anticipated Release: n/a The economics of mining Epic are extremely compelling for countries that have free or extremely cheap electricity, since anyone with an ordinary PC can mine. Individual people around the world can simply run the miner and earn meaningful money (imagine Venezuela for example), something that has not been possible since the very early days of Bitcoin. Ecosystem Development Atomic Swaps — Connecting Epic to other blockchains in a trustless way, starting with ETH so that Epic can trade on DeFi infrastructure such as Uniswap, Kyber, etc. Status: Drawing Board Anticipated Release: n/a Xenolink Advisor at Epic Cash From the Community aspect, we have been further developing our community international reach. We have been seeing an increase in interest from South America, China, Russia, Japan, Italy, and the Philippines. We are working on targeting more countries. We truly aim to be a decentralized project that is open to everyone worldwide. CryptoDiffer team Great, thank you for your answers, we now can move to community questions part! Cryptodiffer Community You have 3 mining algorithms, the question is: how do they not compete with each other? Is there any benefit of mining on the GPU and CPU if someone is mining on the ASIC? Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash The block selection is deterministic, so that every 100 blocks, 60% are for RandomX (CPU), 38% for ProgPow (GPU), and 2% for Cuckoo (ASIC) — the policy is flexible so that we can have as many algorithms with any percentages we want. The goal is to make the most decentralized and resilient network possible, and with that in mind we are excited to work on enabling tablets and cell phones to mine, since that opens it up to millions of people that otherwise can’t take part. Cryptodiffer Community To Run a project smoothly, Funding is very important, From where does the Funding/revenue come from? Xenolink Advisor at Epic Cash Yes, early on this was realized and in order to scale a project funds are indeed needed. Epic Cash did not start with any funding and no ICO and was organically genesis mined with no pre-mine. Epic cash is also a nonprofit community driven project similar to Monero. There is no profit-driven entity in the picture. To overcome the revenue issue Epic Cash setup a development fund tax that decreases 1% every year until 2028 when Epic Cash reaches singularity with Bitcoin emissions. Currently it is at 7.77%. This will help support the scaling of the project. Cryptodiffer Community Hi! In your experience working also with MONERO can you please clarify which are those identified problems that EPIC CASH aims to develop and resolve? What’s the main advantage that EPIC CASH has over MONERO? Thank you! Yoga Dude PR&Marketing at Epic Cash First, I must admit that I am still a huge fan and HODLer of Monero. That said: ✅ our blockchain is MUCH lighter than Monero’s ✅ our transaction processing speed is much faster ✅ our address-less blockchain is more private ✅ Epic Cash can be mined with CPU (RandomX) GPU (ProgPow) and Cuckoo, whereas Monero migrated to RandomX and currently only mineable with CPU Cryptodiffer Community
the feature ‘Cut Through’ deletes old data, how is it decided which data will be deletes, and what are the consequences of it for the platform and therefore the users?
On your website I see links to download Epic wallet and mining software for Linux,Windows and MacOs, I am a user of android, is there a version for me, or does it have a release date?
Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash
This is one of the most exciting features of Mimblewimble, which is its extraordinary ability to compress blockchain data. In Bitcoin, the entire history of a coin must be replayed every time it is spent, and comprehensive details are permanently stored in the blockchain. Epic discards spent transaction inputs and consolidates outputs, storing neither addresses or amounts, only a tiny kernel to allow sender and receiver to prove their transaction.
The Vitex mobile app is great for today, and we have a native mobile app for iOS and Android in the works as well.
Cryptodiffer Community $EPIC Have total Supply of 21,000,000 EPIC , is there any burning plan? Or Buyback program to maintain $EPIC price in the future? Who is Epic Biggest competitors? And what’s makes epic better than competitors? Xenolink Advisor at Epic Cash We respect the older generation coins like Bitcoin. But we have learned that the supply economics of Bitcoin is very sound. Until today we can witness how the Bitcoin is being adopted institutionally and by retail. We match the 21 million BTC supply economics because it is an inelastic fixed model which makes the long-term economics very sound. To have an elastic model of burning tokens or printing tokens will not have a solid economic future. Take for example the USD which is an inflating supply. In terms of competitors we look at everyone in crypto with respect and also learn from everyone. If we had to compare to other Mimblewimble tech coins, Grin is an inelastic forever inflating supply which in the long term is not sound economics. Beam however is an inelastic model but is formed as a corporation. The fair distribution is not there because of the permanent revenue model setup for them. Epic Cash a non-profit development tax fund model for scaling purposes that will disappear by 2028’s singularity. Cryptodiffer Community What your plans in place for global expansion, are you focusing on only market at this time? Or focus on building and developing or getting customers and users, or partnerships? Yoga Dude PR&Marketing at Epic Cash Since we are a community project, we have many developers, in addition to the core team. Our plans for Global expansion are simple — we have advocates in different regions addressing their audiences in their native languages. We are growing organically, by explaining our ideology and usability. The idea is to grow beyond needing a fiat bridge for crypto use, but to rather replace fiat with our borderless, private and fungible crypto so people can use it to get goods and services without using banks. We are not limiting ourselves to one particular demographic — Epic Cash is a valid solution for the gamers, investors, techie and non techie people, and the unbanked. Cryptodiffer Community EPIC confidential coin! Did you have any problems with the regulators? And there will be no problems with listing on centralized exchanges? Xenolink Advisor at Epic Cash In terms of structure, we are carefully set up to minimize these concerns. Without a company or investors in the picture, and having raised no funds, there is little scope to attack in terms of securities laws. Bitcoin and Ethereum are widely acknowledged as acceptable, and we follow in their well-established footprints in that respect. Centralized exchanges already trade other privacy coins, so we don’t see this as much of an issue either. In general, decentralized p2p exchange options are more interesting than today’s centralized platforms. They are more censorship resistant, secure, and privacy-protecting. As the technology gets better, they should continue to gain market share and that’s why we’re proud to be partnered with Vitex, whose exchange and mobile app work very well. Cryptodiffer Community What are the main utility and real-life usage of the #EPIC As an investor, why should we invest in the #EPIC project as a long-term investment? Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash Because our blockchain is so light (only 1.16gb currently, and grows very slowly) it is naturally well suited to become a decentralized mobile money standard because people can run a full node on their phone, guaranteeing the security of their funds. Scalability in Bitcoin requires complicated and compromised workarounds such as Lightning Network and light clients, and these problems are solved in Epic. With our forthcoming Mobile Mining app, hundreds of millions of cell phones and tablets will be able to easily join the network. People can quickly and cheaply send money to one another, fulfilling the long-envisioned promise of P2P electronic cash. As an investor, it’s important to ask a few key questions. Bitcoin Standard tokenomics of disinflation and a fixed supply are well proven over a decade now. We follow this model exactly, with a permanently synchronized supply from 2028, and 4 emission halvings from now until then, with our first one in about two weeks. Beyond that, we can apply some simple logical tests. What is more valuable, money that can only be used in some cases (censorable Bitcoin based on a lack of fungibility) or money that can be used universally? (fungible Epic based on always-on privacy by default). Epic is also poised to be a more decentralized and therefore resilient network because of wider participation in mining. Epic is designed to be Bitcoin++ Privacy, Fungibility, Scalability Cryptodiffer Community Q1. What are advantages for choosing three mining algorithms RandomX+, ProgPow and CuckAToo31+ ? Q2. Beam and Grin use MimbleWimble protocol, so what are difference for Epic? All of you will be friends for partners or competitors? Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash RandomX and ProgPow are designed to use the entirety of a CPU / GPU’s unique processing capabilities in a way that other types of hardware don’t work as well. You can run RandomX on a GPU but it doesn’t work nearly as well as a much cheaper CPU, for example. Cuckoo is a “memory hard” algorithm that widens the range of companies that can produce the hardware. Grin and Beam are great projects and we’ve learned a lot from them. We inherited our first codebase from Grin’s excellent Rust design, which is a better language for community participation than C++ that Beam currently uses. Functionally, Mimblewimble is similar across the 3 coins, with standard Confidential Transactions, CoinJoin, Dandelion++, Schnorr Signatures and other advanced features. Grin is primarily ASIC-targeted, Beam is GPU-targeted, and Epic is multi-hardware. The biggest differences though are in tokenomics and project structure. Grin has permanent inflation of 60 coins per block with no halvings, which means steady erosion of value over time due to new supply pressure. It also lacks a steady funding model, making future development in jeopardy, particularly as the per coin price falls. Beam has a for-profit model with heavy early inflation and a high developer tax. Epic builds on the strengths of these earlier mimblewimble projects and addresses the parts that could be improved. Cryptodiffer Community Some privacy coin has scalability issues! How Epic cash will solve scalability issues? Why you choose randomX consensus algorithem? Xenolink Advisor at Epic Cash Fungibility means that you can’t distinguish one unit of currency from another, in example Gold. Fungibility has recently become a hot issue as people have been noticing Bitcoins being locked up by exchanges which may of had a nefarious history which are called Tainted Coins. In example coins that have been involved in a hack, darknet market transactions, or even processing coin through a mixer. Today we can already see freshly mined Bitcoins being sold at a premium price to avoid the fungibility problem Bitcoin carries today. Bitcoin can be tracked by chainalysis and is not a fungible cryptocurrency. One of the features that Epic has is privacy with added fungibility, because of Mimblewimble technology, Epic has no addresses recorded and therefore nothing can be tracked by chainalysis. Below I provide a link of an example of what the lack of fungibility is resulting in today with Bitcoin. One of the reasons why we chose the Random X algo. is because of the easy barrier of entry and also to further decentralize the mining. Random X algo can be mined on old computers or laptops. We also have 2 other algos Progpow (GPU), and Cuckoo (ASIC) to create a wider decentralization of mining methods for Epic. Cryptodiffer Community I’m a newbie in crypto and blockchain so how will Epic Cash team target and educate people who don’t know about blockchain and crypto? What is the uniqueness of Epic Cash that cannot be found in other project that´s been released so far ? Yoga Dude Pr&Marketing at Epic Cash Actually, while we have our white paper translated into over 30 languages, we are more focused on explaining our uses and advantages rather than cold specs. Our tech is solid, but we not get hung up on pure tech talk which most casual users do not need to or care to understand. As long as our fundamentals and tech are secure and user friendly our primary goal is to educate about use cases and market potential. The uniqueness of Epic Cash is its amalgamation of “whats good” in other cryptos. We use Mimblewimble for privacy and anonymity. Our blockchain is much lighter than our competitors. We are the only Mimblewimble crypto to use a unique cocktail of mining algorithms allowing to be mined by casual miners with gaming rigs and laptops, while remaining friendly to GPU and CPU farmers. The “uniqueness” is learning from the mistakes of those who came before us, we evolved and learned, which is why our privacy is better, we are faster, we are fungible, we offer diverse mining and so on. We are the best blend — thats powerful and unique Cryptodiffer Community Can you share EPIC’s vision for decentralized finance (DEFI)? What features do EPIC have to support DEFI? Yoga Dude PR&Marketing at Epic Cash We view Epic as ideally suited to be the decentralized digital reserve asset of the new Private Internet of Money that’s emerging. At a technology level, atomic swaps can be created to build liquidity bridges so that wrapped Epic tokens (like WBTC, WETH) can trade on other networks as ERC20, BEP2, NEP5, VIP180, Algorand and so on. There is more Bitcoin value locked on Ethereum than in Lightning Network, so we will similarly integrate Epic so that it can trade on networks such as Uniswap, Kyber, and so on. Longer term, if there is market demand for it, thanks to Scriptless Script functionality our blockchain has, we can build “Confidential Assets” (which Raven, Tari, and Beam are all also working on) that enable people to create tokenized assets in a private way. Cryptodiffer Community If you could choose one celebrity to promote Epic-cash, who that would be? Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash I am a firm believer that the strength of the project lies in allowing community members to become their own celebrities, if their content is good enough the community will propel them to celebrity status. Organic celebrities with small but loyal following are vastly more beneficial than big name professional shills with inflated but non caring audiences. I remember the early days of Apple when an enthusiastic dude named Guy Kawasaki became Apple Evangelist, he was literally going around stores that sold Apple and visited user groups and Evangelized his belief in Apple. This guy became a Legend and helped Apple become what it is today. Epic Cash will have its OWN Celebrities Cryptodiffer Community How does $EPIC solve scalability of transactions? Current blockchains face issues with scalability a lot, how does $EPIC creates a solution to it? Xenolink Advisor at Epic Cash Epic Cash is utilizing Mimblewimble technology. Besides the privacy & fungibility aspect of the tech. There is the scalability features of it. It is implemented into Epic by transaction cut-through. Which means it allows nodes to remove all intermediate transactions, thus significantly reducing the blockchain size without affecting its validation. Mimblewimble also does not use addresses like a BTC address, and amount of transactions are also not recorded. One problem Monero and Bitcoin are facing now is scalability. It is evident today that data is getting more expensive and that will be a problem in the long run for those coins. Epic is 90% lighter and more scalable compared to Monero and Bitcoin. Cryptodiffer Community what are the ways that Epic Cash generates profits/revenue to maintain your project and what is its revenue model ? How can it make benefit win-win to both invester and your project ? Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash There is a block subsidy of 7.77% that declines 1.11% per year until 0, where it stays after that. As a nonprofit community effort, this extremely modest amount goes much further than in other projects, which often take 20, 30, even 50+ % of the coin supply. We believe that this ongoing funding model best aligns the long term incentives for all participants and balances the compromises between the ends of the centralized/decentralized spectrum of choices that any project must make. Cryptodiffer Community Q1 : What are your major goals to archive in the next 3–4 years? Q2 : What are your plans to expand and gain more adoption? Yoga Dude Pr&Marketing at Epic Cash Max already talked about our technical plans and goals in his roadmap. Allow me to talk more about the non technical 😁 We are aiming for broader reach in the non technical more mainstream community — this is a big challenge but we believe it is doable. By offering simpler ways to mine Epic Cash (with smart phones for example), and by doing more education we will achieve the holy grail of crypto — moving past the fiat bridges and getting Epic Cash to be accepted as means of payment for goods and services. We will accomplish this by working with regional advocacy groups, community interaction, off-line promotional activities and diverse social media targeting. Cryptodiffer Community It seems to me that EpicCash will have its first Halving, right? Why a halving so soon? Is a mobile version feasible? Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash Our supply emission catches up to that of Bitcoin’s first 19 years after 8 years in Epic, so that requires more frequent halvings. Today’s block emission is 16, next up are 8, 4, 2, and then finally 0.15625. After that, the supply of Epic and that of BTC stay synchronized until maxing out at 21m coins in 2140. Today we have a mobile wallet through the Vitex app, a native mobile wallet coming, and are working on mobile mining. Cryptodiffer Community What markets will you add after that? Yoga Dude PR&Marketing at Epic Cash Well, we are aiming to have ALL markets Epic Cash in its final iteration will be usable by everyone everywhere regardless of their technical expertise. We are not limiting ourselves to the technocrats, one of our main goals is to help the billions of unbanked. We want everyone to be able to mine, buy, and most of all USE Epic Cash — gamers, farmers, soccer moms, students, retirees, everyone really — even bankers (well once we defeat the banking industry) We will continue building on the multilingual diversity of our global community adding support and advocacy groups in more countries in more languages. Epic Cash is More than Money and its for Everyone. Cryptodiffer Community Almost, all cryptocurrencies are decentralized & no-one knows who owns that cryptocurrencies ! then also, why Privacy is needed? hats the advantages of Private coins? Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash With a public transparent blockchain such as Bitcoin, you are permanently posting a detailed history of your money movements open for anyone to see (not just legitimate authorities, either!) — It would be considered crazy to post your credit card or bank statements to Twitter, but that’s what is happening every time you send a transaction that is not private. This excellent video from community contributor Spencer Lambert https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0blbfmvCq\_4 explains better than I can. Privacy is not just for criminals, it’s for everyone. Do you want your landlord to increase the rent when he sees that you get a raise? Your insurance company to raise your healthcare costs because they see you buying too much ice cream? If you’re a business, do you want your employees to see how much money their coworkers make? Do you want your competitors to trace your supplier and customer relationships? Of course not. By privacy being default for everyone, cryptocurrency can be used in a much wider range of situations without unacceptable compromises. Cryptodiffer Community What are the main utility and real-life usage of the #EPIC As an investor, why should we invest in the #EPIC project as a long-term investment? Xenolink Advisor at Epic Cash Epic Cash can be used as a Private and Fungible store of value, medium of exchange, and unit of account. As Epic Cash grows and becomes adopted it can be compared to how Bitcoin and Monero is used and adopted as well. As Epic is adopted by the masses, it can be accepted as a medium of exchange for store owners and as fungible payments without the worry of having money that is tainted. Epic Cash as a store of value may be a good long term aspect of investment to consider. Epic Cash carries an inelastic fixed supply economic model of 21 million coins. There will be 5 halvings which this month of June will be our first halving of epic. From a block reward of 16 Epic reduced to 8. If we look at BTC’s price action and history of their halvings it has been proven and show that there has been an increase in value due to the scarcity and from halvings a reduction of # of BTC’s mined per block. An inelastic supply model like Bitcoin provides proof of the circulating supply compared to the total supply by the history of it’s Price action which is evident in long term charts since the birth of Bitcoin. EPIC Plans to have 5 halvings before the year 2028 to match the emissions of Bitcoin which we call the singularity event. Below is a chart displaying our halvings model approaching singularity. Once bitcoin and cryptocurrency becomes adopted mainstream, the fungibility problem will be more noticed by the general public. Privacy coins and the features of fungibility/scalability will most likely be sought over. Right now a majority of people believe that all cryptocurrency is fungible. However, that is not true. We can already see Chainalysis confirming that they can trace and track and even for other well-known privacy coins today such as Z-Cash. Cryptodiffer Community
You aim to reach support from a global community, what are your plans to get spanish speakers involved into Epic Cash? And emerging markets like the african
How am I secure I won’t be affected by receiving tainted money?
Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash Native speakers from our community are working to raise awareness in key markets such as mining in Argentina and Venezuela for Spanish (Roberto Navarro called Epic “the holy grail of cryptocurrency” and Ethiopia and certain North African countries that have the lowest electricity costs in the world. Remittances between USA and Latin American countries are expensive and slow, so Epic is also perfect for people to send money back home as well. Cryptodiffer Community Do EPICs in 2020 focus more on research and coding, or on sales and implementation? Yoga Dude PR&Marketing at Epic Cash We will definitely continue to work on research and coding, with emphasis on improved accessibility (especially via smartphones) usability, security and privacy. In terms of financial infrastructure will continuing to add exchanges both KYC and non KYC. Big part of our plans is in ongoing Marketing and PR outreach. The idea is to make Epic Cash a viral sensation of sorts. If we can get Epic Cash adopters to spread the word and tell their family, coworkers and friends about Epic Cash — there will be no stopping us and to help that happen we have a growing army of content creators, and supporters. Everyone with skin in the game gets the benefit of advancing the cause. Folks also, this isn’t an answer to the question but an example of a real-world Epic Cash content — https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XtAVEqKGgqY a challenge from one of our content creators to beat his 21 pull ups and get 100 epics! This has not been claimed yet — people need to step up 🙂 and to help that I will match another 100 Epic Cash to the first person to beat this Cryptodiffer Community I was watching some videos explaining how to send and receive transactions in EpicCash, which consists of ports and sending links, my question is why this is so, which, for now, looks complex? Let’s talk about the economic model, can EpicCash comply with the concept of value reserve? Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash In V3, which is coming later this summer, Epic can be sent over Tor, which eliminates this issue of port opening, even though using tools like ngrok.io, it’s not necessarily as painful as directly configuring the router ports. Early Lightning Network had this issue as well and it’s something we have a plan to address via research into non-interactive transactions. “Fire and Forget” payments to an address, as people are used to in Bitcoin, is coming to Epic and we’re excited to develop functionality that other advanced mimblewimble coins don’t yet have. We are committed to constant improvement in usability and utility, to make our money system the ease of use leader. We are involved in the project (anyone can join the Freeman Family) because we believe that simply by choosing to use a form of money that better aligns with our ideals, that we can make a positive change in the world. Some of my thoughts about how I got involved are here: https://medium.com/epic-cash/the-freeman-family-e3b9c3b3f166 Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash Huge thanks to our friends Maks and Vladyslav, we welcome everyone to come say hi at one of our friendly communities. It is extremely early in this journey, our market cap is only 0.5m right now, whereas the 3 other mimblewimble coins are at $20m, $30m and $100m respectively. Epic is a historic opportunity to follow in the footsteps of legends such as Bitcoin and Monero, and we hope to become the first Top 5 privacy coin project. Xenolink Advisor at Epic Cash Would like to Thank the Cryptodiffer Team and the Cryptodiffer community for hosting us and also engaging with us to learn more about Epic. If anyone else has more questions and wants to know more about EPIC , can find us at our telegram channel at https://t.me/EpicCash . Yoga Dude Pr&Marketing at Epic Cash Thank you, CryptoDiffer Team, and this wonderful Community!!! Cryptodiffer TEAM Thank you everyone for taking your time and asking great questions Thank you for your time, it was an insightful session Spread the love
Lastupdated2018-01-29 This post is a collaboration with the Bitcoin community to create a one-stop source for Lightning Network information. There are still questions in the FAQ that are unanswered, if you know the answer and can provide a source please do so!
Lightning Network White Paper - The protocol has changed since this original paper, but covers the mid-level mechanics of the Lightning Network with an emphasis on the smart contracts that make it trustless
If you can answer please PM me and include source if possible. Feel free to help keep these answers up to date and as brief but correct as possible
Is Lightning Bitcoin?
Yes. You pick a peer and after some setup, create a bitcoin transaction to fund the lightning channel; it’ll then take another transaction to close it and release your funds. You and your peer always hold a bitcoin transaction to get your funds whenever you want: just broadcast to the blockchain like normal. In other words, you and your peer create a shared account, and then use Lightning to securely negotiate who gets how much from that shared account, without waiting for the bitcoin blockchain.
Is the Lightning Network open source?
Yes, Lightning is open source. Anyone can review the code (in the same way as the bitcoin code)
Who owns and controls the Lightning Network?
Similar to the bitcoin network, no one will ever own or control the Lightning Network. The code is open source and free for anyone to download and review. Anyone can run a node and be part of the network.
I’ve heard that Lightning transactions are happening “off-chain”…Does that mean that my bitcoin will be removed from the blockchain?
No, your bitcoin will never leave the blockchain. Instead your bitcoin will be held in a multi-signature address as long as your channel stays open. When the channel is closed; the final transaction will be added to the blockchain. “Off-chain” is not a perfect term, but it is used due to the fact that the transfer of ownership is no longer reflected on the blockchain until the channel is closed.
Do I need a constant connection to run a lightning node?
Not necessarily, Example: A and B have a channel. 1 BTC each. A sends B 0.5 BTC. B sends back 0.25 BTC. Balance should be A = 0.75, B = 1.25. If A gets disconnected, B can publish the first Tx where the balance was A = 0.5 and B = 1.5. If the node B does in fact attempt to cheat by publishing an old state (such as the A=0.5 and B=1.5 state), this cheat can then be detected on-chain and used to steal the cheaters funds, i.e., A can see the closing transaction, notice it's an old one and grab all funds in the channel (A=2, B=0). The time that A has in order to react to the cheating counterparty is given by the CheckLockTimeVerify (CLTV) in the cheating transaction, which is adjustable. So if A foresees that it'll be able to check in about once every 24 hours it'll require that the CLTV is at least that large, if it's once a week then that's fine too. You definitely do not need to be online and watching the chain 24/7, just make sure to check in once in a while before the CLTV expires. Alternatively you can outsource the watch duties, in order to keep the CLTV timeouts low. This can be achieved both with trusted third parties or untrusted ones (watchtowers). In the case of a unilateral close, e.g., you just go offline and never come back, the other endpoint will have to wait for that timeout to expire to get its funds back. So peers might not accept channels with extremely high CLTV timeouts. -- Source
What Are Lightning’s Advantages?
Tiny payments are possible: since fees are proportional to the payment amount, you can pay a fraction of a cent; accounting is even done in thousandths of a satoshi. Payments are settled instantly: the money is sent in the time it takes to cross the network to your destination and back, typically a fraction of a second.
Does Lightning require Segregated Witness?
Yes, but not in theory. You could make a poorer lightning network without it, which has higher risks when establishing channels (you might have to wait a month if things go wrong!), has limited channel lifetime, longer minimum payment expiry times on each hop, is less efficient and has less robust outsourcing. The entire spec as written today assumes segregated witness, as it solves all these problems.
Can I Send Funds From Lightning to a Normal Bitcoin Address?
No, for now. For the first version of the protocol, if you wanted to send a normal bitcoin transaction using your channel, you have to close it, send the funds, then reopen the channel (3 transactions). In future versions, you and your peer would agree to spend out of your lightning channel funds just like a normal bitcoin payment, allowing you to use your lightning wallet like a normal bitcoin wallet.
Can I Make Money Running a Lightning Node?
Not really. Anyone can set up a node, and so it’s a race to the bottom on fees. In practice, we may see the network use a nominal fee and not change very much, which only provides an incremental incentive to route on a node you’re going to use yourself, and not enough to run one merely for fees. Having clients use criteria other than fees (e.g. randomness, diversity) in route selection will also help this.
What is the release date for Lightning on Mainnet?
Would there be any KYC/AML issues with certain nodes?
Nope, because there is no custody ever involved. It's just like forwarding packets. -- Source
What is the delay time for the recipient of a transaction receiving confirmation?
Furthermore, the Lightning Network scales not with the transaction throughput of the underlying blockchain, but with modern data processing and latency limits - payments can be made nearly as quickly as packets can be sent. -- Source
How does the lightning network prevent centralization?
How would the lightning network work between exchanges?
Each exchange will get to decide and need to implement the software into their system, but some ideas have been outlined here: Google Doc - Lightning Exchanges Note that by virtue of the usual benefits of cost-less, instantaneous transactions, lightning will make arbitrage between exchanges much more efficient and thus lead to consistent pricing across exchange that adopt it. -- Source
How do lightning nodes find other lightning nodes?
Does every user need to store the state of the complete Lightning Network?
According to Rusty's calculations we should be able to store 1 million nodes in about 100 MB, so that should work even for mobile phones. Beyond that we have some proposals ready to lighten the load on endpoints, but we'll cross that bridge when we get there. -- Source
Would I need to download the complete state every time I open the App and make a payment?
No you'd remember the information from the last time you started the app and only sync the differences. This is not yet implemented, but it shouldn't be too hard to get a preliminary protocol working if that turns out to be a problem. -- Source
What needs to happen for the Lightning Network to be deployed and what can I do as a user to help?
Lightning is based on participants in the network running lightning node software that enables them to interact with other nodes. This does not require being a full bitcoin node, but you will have to run "lnd", "eclair", or one of the other node softwares listed above. All lightning wallets have node software integrated into them, because that is necessary to create payment channels and conduct payments on the network, but you can also intentionally run lnd or similar for public benefit - e.g. you can hold open payment channels or channels with higher volume, than you need for your own transactions. You would be compensated in modest fees by those who transact across your node with multi-hop payments. -- Source
Is there anyway for someone who isn't a developer to meaningfully contribute?
Sure, you can help write up educational material. You can learn and read more about the tech at http://dev.lightning.community/resources. You can test the various desktop and mobile apps out there (Lightning Desktop, Zap, Eclair apps). -- Source
Do I need to be a miner to be a Lightning Network node?
Do I need to run a full Bitcoin node to run a lightning node?
lit doesn't depend on having your own full node -- it automatically connects to full nodes on the network. -- Source LND uses a light client mode, so it doesn't require a full node. The name of the light client it uses is called neutrino
How does the lightning network stop "Cheating" (Someone broadcasting an old transaction)?
Upon opening a channel, the two endpoints first agree on a reserve value, below which the channel balance may not drop. This is to make sure that both endpoints always have some skin in the game as rustyreddit puts it :-) For a cheat to become worth it, the opponent has to be absolutely sure that you cannot retaliate against him during the timeout. So he has to make sure you never ever get network connectivity during that time. Having someone else also watching for channel closures and notifying you, or releasing a canned retaliation, makes this even harder for the attacker. This is because if he misjudged you being truly offline you can retaliate by grabbing all of its funds. Spotty connections, DDoS, and similar will not provide the attacker the necessary guarantees to make cheating worthwhile. Any form of uncertainty about your online status acts as a deterrent to the other endpoint. -- Source
How many times would someone need to open and close their lightning channels?
You typically want to have more than one channel open at any given time for redundancy's sake. And we imagine open and close will probably be automated for the most part. In fact we already have a feature in LND called autopilot that can automatically open channels for a user. Frequency will depend whether the funds are needed on-chain or more useful on LN. -- Source
Will the lightning network reduce BTC Liquidity due to "locking-up" funds in channels?
When setting up a Lightning Network Node are fees set for the entire node, or each channel when opened?
You don't really set up a "node" in the sense that anyone with more than one channel can automatically be a node and route payments. Fees on LN can be set by the node, and can change dynamically on the network. -- Source
Can Lightning routing fees be changed dynamically, without closing channels?
Yes but it has to be implemented in the Lightning software being used. -- Source
How can you make sure that there will be routes with large enough balances to handle transactions?
You won't have to do anything. With autopilot enabled, it'll automatically open and close channels based on the availability of the network. -- Source
How does the Lightning Network stop flooding nodes (DDoS) with micro transactions? Is this even an issue?
IoT is a whole ecosystem that contains intelligent devices equipped with sensors (sensors) that provide remote control, storage, transmission and security of data. The Internet of Things (IoT) is an innovative solution in various areas such as healthcare, insurance, labor protection, logistics, ecology, etc. To unleash the full potential of using IoT devices, it is necessary to solve many problems related to standards, security, architecture, ecosystem construction, channels and device connection protocols. Today in the world, large organizations such as NIST, IEEE, ISO / IEC, and others make enormous efforts in addressing the issues of standardization, security, and the architecture of developed devices. Analysis of recent scientific research in the field of solving information security issues and data privacy of IoT devices showed positive results, but these methods and approaches are based on traditional methods of network security. The development and application of security mechanisms for IoT devices is a complex and heterogeneous task. In this regard, ensuring information security and the protection of sensitive data, as well as the availability of IoT devices, is the main purpose of writing this article. Given the above, many questions arise related to the security status of IoT devices, namely: What are the current standards and protocols for IoT? What are the requirements for ensuring information security of IoT devices? What security mechanisms do IoT devices have? What methods of testing IoT devices exist? Manufacturers and developers of IoT devices do not pay enough attention to security issues. With the development of cyber-attacks, attack vectors are becoming more sophisticated and aimed at several infrastructure elements at the same time. IoT infrastructure typically includes millions of connected objects and devices that store and share confidential information. Scenarios of theft and fraud, such as hacking and falsifying personal data, pose a serious threat to such IoT devices. Most IoT devices use the public Internet to exchange data, which makes them vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Modern approaches to information security often offer solutions to individual problems, when multi-level approaches offer increased resistance to cyber-attacks. Challenges of testing IoT devices To a request to name essential items, many would answer: food, a roof over your head, clothes … With one caveat: this was the case in the last century. Since then, the species Homo Sapiens has accumulated needs. We need automatic sensors to control the lighting, not just switches, for smart systems to monitor health and car traffic. The list goes on … In general, we can make life easier and better. Let’s try to figure out how all this Internet of things works before moving on to testing. IoT testing Content What is the Internet of Things (IoT)? Examples of IoT devices # 1) Wearable technology: # 2) Infrastructure and development # 3) Health Technologies that are present in IoT IoT Testing # 1) Usability: # 2) IoT Security: # 3) Network features: # 4) Efficiency: # 5) Compatibility testing: # 6) Pilot testing: # 7) Check for compliance: # 8) Testing updates: IoT testing challenges # 1) Hard / soft # 2) Device Interaction Model # 3) Testing data coming in real time # 4) UI # 5) Network Availability IoT Testing Tools # 1) Software: # 2) Hard: Total What is the Internet of Things (IoT)? The Internet of things (or IoT) is a network that combines many objects: vehicles, home automation, medical equipment, microchips, etc. All these constituent elements accumulate and transmit data. Through this technology, the user controls the devices remotely.
Examples of IoT devices
# 1) Wearable technology: Fitbit Fitness Bracelets and Apple Watch smart watches sync seamlessly with other mobile devices.
IoT – watches and bracelets
Itís easier to collect health information: heart rate, body activity during sleep, etc. # 2) Infrastructure and development The CitySense app analyzes lighting data online and turns lights on and off automatically. There are applications that control traffic lights or report on the availability of parking lots. # 3) Health Some health monitoring systems are used in hospitals. The basis of their work is indicative data. These services control the dosage of drugs at different times of the day. For example, the UroSense application monitors the level of fluid in the body and, if necessary, increases this level. And doctors will learn about patient information wirelessly. Technologies that are present in IoT RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), EPC (Electronic Product Code) NFC (ìNear Field Communicationî) provides two-way communication between devices. This technology is present in smartphones and is used for contactless transactions. Bluetooth It is widely used in situations where near-field communication is sufficient. Most often present in wearable devices. Z-Wave. Low frequency RF technology. Most often used for home automation, lighting control, etc. WiFi. The most popular network for IoT (file, data and message transfer). IoT Testing Consider an example : a medical system that monitors health status, heart rate, fluid content, and sends reports to healthcare providers. Data is displayed in the system; archives available. And doctors are already deciding whether to take medication for the patient remotely. IoT architecture There are several approaches for testing the IoT architecture. # 1) Usability: It is necessary to provide usability testing of each device. A medical device that monitors your health should be portable. Sufficiently thought out equipment is needed that would send not only notifications, but also error messages, warnings, etc. The system must have an option that captures events, so that the end user understands. If this is not possible, event information is stored in the database. The ability to process data and exchange tasks between devices is carefully checked. # 2) IoT Security: Data is at the heart of all connected devices. Therefore, unauthorized access during data transfer is not ruled out. From the point of view of software testing, it is necessary to check how secure / encrypted the data is. If there is a UI, you need to check if it is password protected. # 3) Network features: Network connectivity and IoT functionality are critical. After all, we are talking about a system that is used for health purposes. Two main aspects are tested: The presence of a network , the possibility of data transfer (whether jobs are transferred from one device to another without any hitch). The scenario when there is no connection . Regardless of the level of reliability of the system, it is likely that the status of the system will be ìofflineî. If the network is unavailable, employees of the hospital or other organization need to know about it (notifications). Thus, they will be able to monitor the condition of the patient themselves, and not wait for the system to work. On the other hand, in such systems there is usually a mechanism that saves data if the system is offline. That is, data loss is eliminated. # 4) Efficiency: It is necessary to take into account the extent to which the healthcare solution is applicable in specific conditions. In testing, from 2 to 10 patients participate, data is transmitted to 10-20 devices. If the entire hospital is connected to the network, this is already 180-200 patients. That is, there will be more actual data than test data. In addition, it is necessary to test the utility for monitoring the system: current load, power consumption, temperature, etc. # 5) Compatibility testing: This item is always present in the plan for testing the IoT system. The compatibility of different versions of operating systems, browser types and their respective versions, devices of different generations, communication modes [for example, Bluetooth 2.0, 3.0] is extremely important for IoT. # 6) Pilot testing: Pilot testing is a mandatory point of the test plan. Only tests in the laboratory will allow us to conclude that the system is functional. In pilot testing, the number of users is limited. They make manipulations with the application and express their opinion. These comments turn out to be very helpful, they make a reliable application. # 7) Check for compliance: The system, which monitors the state of health, undergoes many compliance checks. It also happens that a software product passes all stages of testing, but fails the final test for compliance [testing is carried out by the regulatory body]. It is more advisable to check for compliance with norms and standards before starting the development cycle. # 8) Testing updates: IoT is a combination of many protocols, devices, operating systems, firmware, hardware, network layers, etc. When an update occurs – be it a system or something else of the above – rigorous regression testing is required. The overall strategy is being amended to avoid the difficulties associated with the upgrade.
IoT testing challengesIoT testing
# 1) Hard / soft IoT is an architecture in which software and hardware components are closely intertwined. Not only software is important, but also hard: sensors, gateways, etc. Functional testing alone will not be enough to certify the system. All components are interdependent. IoT is much more complicated than simpler systems [only software or only hard]. # 2) Device Interaction Model Components of the network must interact in real time or close to real. All this becomes a single whole – hence the additional difficulties associated with IoT (security, backward compatibility and updates). # 3) Testing data coming in real time Obtaining this data is extremely difficult. The matter is complicated by the fact that the system, as in the described case, may relate to the health sector. # 4) UI An IoT network usually consists of different devices that are controlled by different platforms [iOS, Android, Windows, linux]. Testing is possible only on some devices, since testing on all possible devices is almost impossible. # 5) Network Availability Network connectivity plays an important role in IoT. The data rate is increasing. IoT architecture should be tested under various connection conditions, at different speeds. Virtual network emulators in most cases are used to diversify network load, connectivity, stability, and other elements of load testing . But the evidence is always new scenarios, and the testing team does not know where the difficulties will arise in the future.
IoT Testing ToolsIoT and software
There are many tools that are used in testing IoT systems. They are classified depending on the purpose: # 1) Software: Wireshark : An open source tool. Used to monitor traffic in the interface, source / given host address, etc. Tcpdump : This tool does a similar job. The utility does not have a GUI, its interface is the command line. It enables the user to flash TCP / IP and other packets that are transmitted over the network. # 2) Hard: JTAG Dongle: A tool similar to debuggers in PC applications. Allows you to find defects in the code of the target platform and shows the changes step by step. Digital Storage Oscilloscope : checks various events using time stamps, power outages, signal integrity. Software Defined Radio : emulates a transmitter and receiver for various wireless gateways. IoT is an emerging market and many opportunities. In the foreseeable future, the Internet of things will become one of the main areas of work for tester teams. Network devices, smart gadget applications, communication modules – all this plays an important role in the study and evaluation of various services. Total The approach to testing IoT may vary depending on the specific system / architecture. Itís difficult to test IoT, but at the same time itís an interesting job, since testers have a good place to swing – there are many devices, protocols and operating systems. PS You should try out the TAAS format (“tests from the user’s point of view”), and not just fulfill the formal requirements. ————— Smart watches, baby-sitters, wireless gadgets and devices such as, for example, a portable radio station have long been part of everyday life. Hackers have already proven that many of these attacks on IoT are possible. Many people in general first learned about IoT security threats when they heard about the Mirai botnet in September 2016. According to some estimates, Mirai infected about 2.5 million IoT devices, including printers, routers and cameras connected to the Internet. The botnetís creators used it to launch distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, including an attack on the KrebsonSecurity cybersecurity blog. In fact, the attackers used all devices infected with Mirai to try to connect to the target site at the same time, in the hope of suppressing the servers and preventing access to the site. Since Mirai was first published on the news, attackers launched other botnet attacks on IoT, including Reaper and Hajime. Experts say that such attacks are most likely in the future. The Internet of Things (IoT) can bring many advantages to modern life, but it also has one huge drawback: security threats. In its 2018 IOT forecasts, Forroter Research notes: ìSecurity threats are a major concern for companies deploying IoT solutions – in fact, this is the main task of organizations looking to deploy IoT solutions. However, most firms do not regularly prevent IoT-specific security threats, and business pressure suppresses technical security issues. î IoT security risks can be even more significant on the consumer side, where people are often unaware of potential threats and what they should do to avoid threats. A 2017 IoT security survey sponsored by Gemalto Security Provider found that only 14 percent of consumers surveyed consider themselves IoT-aware. This number is particularly noteworthy because 54 percent of the respondents owned an average of four IoT devices. And these IoT security threats are not just theoretical. Hackers and cybercriminals have already found ways to compromise many IoT devices and networks, and experts say that successful attacks are likely to increase. Forrester predicted: “In 2018, we will see more attacks related to IoT … except that they will increase in scale and loss.” What types of IoT security threats will enterprises and consumers face in 2018? Based on historical precedent, here are ten of the most likely types of attacks.
Botnets and DDoS attacks
Remote recording The possibility that attackers can hack IoT devices and record owners without their knowledge is not revealed as a result of the work of hackers, but as a result of the work of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Documents released by WikiLeaks implied that the spy agency knew about dozens of zero-day exploits for IoT devices, but did not disclose errors, because they hoped to use vulnerabilities to secretly record conversations that would reveal the actions of alleged opponents of America. Documents pointed to vulnerabilities in smart TVs, as well as on Android and iOS smartphones. The obvious consequence is that criminals can also exploit these vulnerabilities for their vile purposes.
Spam In January 2014, one of the first known attacks using IoT devices used more than 100,000 Internet-connected devices, including televisions, routers, and at least one smart refrigerator to send 300,000 spam emails per day.
The attackers sent no more than 10 messages from each device, which makes it very difficult to block or determine the location of the incident. This first attack was not far from the last. IoT spam attacks continued in the fall with the Linux.ProxyM IoT botnet.
APTs In recent years, advanced persistent threats (APTs) have become a serious concern for security professionals.
APTs are carried out by funded and widespread attackers such as nation states or corporations that launch complex cyberattacks that are difficult to prevent or mitigate. For example, the Stuxnet worm, which destroyed Iranian nuclear centrifuges and hacking Sony Pictures 2014, was attributed to nation states. Because the critical infrastructure is connected to the Internet, many experts warn that APTs may launch a power-oriented IoT attack, industrial control systems, or other systems connected to the Internet. Some even warn that terrorists could launch an attack on iOT, which could harm the global economy.
Ransomware Ransomware has become too common on home PCs and corporate networks. Now experts say that it is only a matter of time before the attackers begin to block smart devices. Security researchers have already demonstrated the ability to install ransomware on smart thermostats. For example, they can raise the temperature to 95 degrees and refuse to return it to its normal state until the owner agrees to pay a ransom in Bitcoins. They can also launch similar attacks on garage doors, vehicles, or even appliances. How much would you pay to unlock your smart coffee pot first thing in the morning?
Data theft Obtaining important data, such as customer names, credit card numbers, social security numbers, and other personal information, is still one of the main goals of cyber attacks.
IoT devices represent a whole new vector of attack for criminals looking for ways to invade corporate or home networks. For example, if an improperly configured device or IoT sensor is connected to corporate networks, this can give attackers a new way to enter the network and potentially find the valuable data that they need.
Home theft As smart locks and smart garage doors become more commonplace, it is also more likely that cybercriminals can become real thieves.
Home systems that are not properly protected can be vulnerable to criminals with sophisticated tools and software. Security researchers are unlikely to have shown that itís quite easy to break into a house through smart locks from several different manufacturers, and smart garage doors do not seem to be much safer.
Communication with children One of the most disturbing IoT security stories came from children.
One couple discovered that the stranger not only used his monitor for children to spy on their three-year-old son, this stranger also spoke with his child through the device. Mother heard an unknown voice: ìWake up, boy, dad is looking for you,î and the child said that he was scared because at night someone was talking to him on an electronic device. As more and more children’s gadgets and toys connect to the Internet, it seems likely that these frightening scenarios may become more common.
Remote control of a vehicle As vehicles become smarter and more accessible on the Internet, they also become vulnerable to attack.
Hackers have shown that they can take control of a jeep, maximize air conditioning, change the radio station, start the wipers, and ultimately slow down the car. The news led to the recall of 1.4 million cars, but whitehat researchers, following the original exploit, said they discovered additional vulnerabilities that were not fixed by the Chrysler patch applied to the recalled cars. Although experts say the automotive industry is doing a great job of ensuring vehicle safety, it is almost certain that attackers will find new vulnerabilities in such smart cars.
Personal attacks Sometimes IoT covers more than just devices – it can also include people who have connected medical devices implanted in their bodies.
An episode of the television series Homeland attempted a murder aimed at an implanted medical device, and former vice president Dick Cheney was so worried about this scenario that he turned off the wireless capabilities on his implanted defibrillator. This kind of attack has not yet happened in real life, but it remains possible, as many medical devices become part of the IoT.
IoT Chain (ITC) - Why China's answer to IOTA should have a place in your portfolio
In order to understand the value and potential of IoT Chain (ITC), it is important to first delve into a bit of background on the Chinese Internet of Things market, and why DAG networks like ITC are uniquely suited to IoT applications. China and it’s massive Internet of Things future China is the undisputed largest Internet of Things market in the world, a market that by 2020 is projected to be worth nearly $1 trillion USD as smart cities, autonomous vehicles, and evolving mobile devices such as wearables increasingly come online in the inevitable march toward an inextricably connected future. This market is, however, largely untapped as the problem of data/value transfer has been hitherto difficult to approach. Internet of Things applications will rely on instantaneous transactions of miniature values that enable a network of at-home power grids to transact excess solar power, or a smart car to pay a smart meter in real time for its parking (what is paid is thus no more and no less than the exact amount of parking time used). Blockchain is problematic for approaching these types of nano-transactions because of the lag involved in creating consensus on the network. On a blockchain, many transactions occurring at the same time or in very close sequence will all end up on the same block which will then need to be mined (proof of work). This makes current blockchains very poor at scaling and unable to handle the sheer volume of transactions occurring per second in the very near-future of IoT device connectivity demands. Blockchains are, on the other hand, extremely secure because the consensus they create makes their data immutable, authentic, and distributed. How does IoT Chain (ITC) solve this problem? IoT Chain (ITC) is not a pure blockchain network; it is a hybrid network combining blockchain with DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph) subnets. Instead of requiring blocks to be mined for creating consensus around a transaction (proof of work), DAG networks do away with blocks all together and have transactions verify each other, allowing for highly scalable and instant transactions. ITC takes blockchain into a new paradigm by combining the best aspects of hyperledger blockchain & DAG technology (lead ITC developer commenting on this: https://imgur.com/a/NG4aO). The ITC testnet release is due within the next two weeks and will be capable of scaling from 1,000 to 10,000 transactions per second. ITC main-net release is, according to the team, ahead of schedule in Q2 (main net release in April seems very possible). The ITC main net will be capable of scaling up to 100,000 transactions per second. For reference, Ethereum and Bitcoin are capable of between 4 and 15 transactions per second, depending on network congestion. Because of the security inherent to ITC’s network, it will be virtually impossible for malicious bots to infect IoT networks as recently happened with the Reaper IoT bot. This aspect alone makes a compelling case for the adoption of ITC and gives way to a very high ceiling in terms of market value potential. Currently, centralized companies mine user data like crude oil which they refine into a profitable (for them) final product, alienating your sovereignty and value in the process. ITC recognizes this and proposes creating a secure operating system for the internet of things wherein users are returned their data sovereignty and the value that is rightfully theirs (see: https://medium.com/@IoT_Chain/iot-chain-itc-return-the-data-sovereignty-to-users-and-create-a-secure-operating-system-for-714ced3d589c). The ITC token is integral and supports the ecosystem; any value transfer related to the rights of intelligent equipment will be settled with ITC tokens. This means that any and every transaction across the IoT Chain network will require ITC tokens, driving the value of tokens higher as adoption of IoT Chain increases. Who has invested in IoT Chain (ITC)? ITC has attracted some of the biggest blockchain funds in Asia as early investors:
Hitters Xu is the founder of Antshares (now known as NEO), Nebulas ($500million USD market cap), and FBG Capital, a pioneering and very well known Chinese blockchain fund. FBG Capital was the first and largest backer of ITC.
HASHED, formerly known as Blockchain Partners Korea, is the largest and most well known blockchain fund in South Korea. They are early backers of ICON, Omise GO, and many other stellar projects that went on to huge valuations. Hashed has invested in ITC and formed a partnership with them which involves a rebrand in February, bringing them to South Korean and Western exchanges, and a marketing campaign in South Korea: https://medium.com/@IoT_Chain/itc-accepts-bpks-investment-and-forms-a-strategic-partnership-9c3a053dfd88
What about partnerships and awards? ITC has several partnerships that are announced, and many more undisclosed partnerships (due to Non-Disclosure Agreements). They are also strongly linked to Cheetah Mobile after the ITC team confirmed they met with Cheetah’s CEO in a private meeting. Cheetah Mobile is a Chinese $2 billion company with 634 million customers.
Shanghai High-Flying Electronics Technology Co. Ltd. Shanghai High-Flying Electronics Technology is an IoT hardware manufacturer. IoT Chain is working with this company to produce chips that contain IoT Chain firmware. The chips will allow other manufacturers to easily integrate IoT Chain functionality into their hardware. This is a key benefit that IoT Chain has over Iota because manufacturers will not need to pay consultants to integrate the platform into their hardware enabling fast and widespread adoption especially among smaller manufacturers.
Shenzhen Galaxywind Network System Co. Ltd. Galaxywind produces high performance routers and smart devices such as smart thermostats for air conditioning, smart power points, smart LED bulbs and smart door locks. IoT Chain firmware will be integrated into their products.
What is a potential valuation? What is coming up for ITC? ITC has a current marketcap of about $145 million USD. IOTA by contrast is valued at $7 billion USD. Considering ITC's backing, connections, and position in the world's largest and most profitable Internet of Things market, ITC appears extremely undervalued with great potential as its currently NDA'd partnerships are revealed with the project's progress.
There is a huge surge in devices attached to the internet, known as the Internet of Things, and it is estimated that over 80 Billion devices will be connected to the internet by 2025, from industrial machines to devices in our home. The constant hacking and cyber attacks have increased not only the demand but the necessity of secure solutions. Our privacy and digital footprint are at risk. [b]Some examples where encryption plays a role: [b]Secure messaging - To make messages truly secure we need a process whereby a cryptography can be applied to encrypt transaction. [b]Secure calling - Secure calling is a process whereby the caller and the recipient of the call are identified and linked via a blockchain enabled cryptocurrency transfer, again creating public and private encryption keys making the call truly private. [b]Secure media storage - To safely and securely store media a process is required where 1.) Access to the media is encrypted via public and private keys of the person wanting to store the media. 2.) The media itself needs to be encrypted with a set of encryption keys and 3.) Media storage costs need to be paid via cryptocurrency [b]Secure browsing - To browse the internet securely we need to create a process of verification whereby nodes on the blockchain can verify websites as “safe”. Furthermore, the entire process needs to be encrypted as well. [b]Verification - This is one of the most important uses of a blockchain, we can verify websites as in the example above but also various other things such as identity, title and ownership, date stamps and source of products as with the verification of the source of agricultural or other products. These are just a few examples. All of this data needs to be encrypted as well. [b]“Smart home” security - Wi-Fi is often used for remote monitoring and control. Home devices, when remotely monitored and controlled via the Internet, are an important constituent of the Internet of Things - all needing encryption, otherwise, hackers paradise. [b]EOT in the future - The examples we mentioned above are only “scratching the surface” of where these technologies are applicable and who knows what will be invented in future. Google, Apple and Uber are all testing cars that drive themselves. A major issue with this technology is again the security aspect and the need to protect against hacking and who want’s to get into a spaceship to Mars that might be hacked or hijacked by ransomware? So the future for the [b]“Encryption of Things” – EOT, looks very interesting indeed and the role of crypto currencies in this will be major. Read the full white paper here - http://eottoken.com/index.php/whitepape The first device using EOT Coin is the BitVault®[/b] - the World's first crypto communicator and blockchain phone. The BitVault is a revolutionary new product that is built around security and privacy enabled through Blockchain technology. Biometric Security enabled through fingerprint and iris scan. Iris patterns are unique to you and are virtually impossible to replicate. This means that iris authentication is one of the safest ways to keep your BitVault locked and the contents private. Proven Biometric technology brings a whole new level of security to your crypto currency and blockchain transactions. Creating Military grade security for your device through third party independent Multilayer security. September 2017 – Swiss Bank in Your Pocket integrates EOT Wallet(Achived) October 2017 – BitVault®, the world’s first blockchain phone launches in London with integration of EOT for secure calling, secure messaging and secure browsing (First batch shipped) November 2017 – BitVault® Global App Store launches for developers to develop their own applications (Achived) November 2017 – Website EOT Payment Gateway for WordPress and WooCommerce (ACHIVED) December 2017 – Cryptodoc stores all your documents securely and encrypted on your PC December 2017 – Password Wallet stores all your passwords for applications and websites encrypted on your PC January 2018 – Smart Router for secure, encrypted internet which is direct, safe and easy January 2018 – EOT Camera, an Encryption of Things connected camera February 2018 – EOT Development Kit for hardware devices EOT payment gateway live on swissbankinyourpocket.com, Now you can buy SBIYP and BitVault using EOT coins More on the BitVault here:- https://swissbankinyourpocket.com/bitvault/]https://swissbankinyourpocket.com/bitvault/https://swissbankinyourpocket.com/bitvault-apps/]https://swissbankinyourpocket.com/bitvault-apps/https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=2152534.0]https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=2152534.0 JOIN US ON REDDIT : http://www.reddit.com/EncryptionOfThings]www.reddit.com/EncryptionOfThings JOIN US ON SLACK : [url=https://join.slack.com/t/eot-coin/shared_invite/enQtMjc3NzkxNzY5NzQ0LTFjMWI5NTJjOGEzYjU5ZDk0ZjRjZWE3MzBkNmI0MmQ2NTUzMTBkOGQ1YmEyNTllMmNiYzA3MGZjOGVmY2IyZGU The EOT Token is trading on the Waves Platform, TOKENS are 1:1 image of EOT coins, EOT coins can be converted to tokens and vice versa using gateway service in SBIYP hardware wallet. if you do not have that hardware wallet, you can contact members on slack who have purchased SBIYP to do that swap for you. TOKEN DETAILS Name : EOT Token (Verified) Identifier : GdnNbe6E3txF63gv3rxhpfxytTJtG7ZYyHAvWWrrEbK5 Total supply : 100,000,000 EOT token (EOT) markets added on the Tidex Exchange https://tidex.com/exchange/eot/btchttps://tidex.com/exchange/eot/waves EOT Coin details (currently minable) https://github.com/EmbeddedDownloads/EOTCoin windows wallet[/b] https://github.com/EmbeddedDownloads/EOTCoin/releases/download/v18.104.22.168/EOTCoin-win.exe windows Desktop wallet[/b] https://github.com/EmbeddedDownloads/EOT-Coin-Windows-Desktop-Wallet/releases/download/1.0/EOTCoinDesktopWallet1-0.zip MAC Wallet [/b] https://github.com/EmbeddedDownloads/EOTCoin/releases/download/v22.214.171.124/EOTCOIN-Qt-OSX-v1001.dmg WEB wallet [/b] http://eot.digital (Closing, please withdraw your coins) ANDROID wallet [/b] https://github.com/EmbeddedDownloads/EOTAndroidWallet/releases Block Explorer [/b] http://www.eot.digital:3622/ Block Explorer 2 [/b] http://www.eotcoin.info (created by [b]@Luanptit[/b]) [Block reward [/b] 100 Coins, [b] ALGORITHM [/b] SCRYPT, [b] BLOCK TIME [/b] 90 seconds MINING POOLS Official mining pool [/b] http://www.eot.digital:3001/ Getting Started [/b] minerd -a scrypt -o stratum+tcp://www.eot.digital:3256 -u WalletAddressWhereYouWantYourMiningCoins -p 1 unofficial Mining pools http://www.altminer.net http://antminepool.com http://coinminers.net/ http://www.vivocryptopool.com [red]Currently EOT is traded on WAVES DEX, Crypto-Bridge DEX and TIDEX. Big exchanges will be available soon, exchanges are in comkmunication. Opportunities are available with EOT - from Development, Mining, Trading as well as other business opportunities built around the EOT currency and the "Encryption of Things" [size=34px]Bitvault on Yahoo Finance https://finance.yahoo.com/news/bitvault-worlds-first-blockchain-phone-201600279.html [/size] [center][img width=770]https://i.imgur.com/UMIlRoC.png[/img][/center] [center][size=30px]Press release 4th October 2017 [/size] [size=30px]yahoo Finance https://finance.yahoo.com/news/bitvault-announces-london-launch-161000826.html?soc_src=community&soc_trk=tw [img]https://i.imgur.com/mBDZnN7.png[/img] Some Helpful Information [quote author=Story777 link=topic=2091616.msg21890405#msg21890405 date=1505551168] You have been keeping a great secret. I've been doing a bit of research with the technology behind this coin. It looks like ALOT of research has gone into this tech, since about 2004 and shortly after a patent for this P2P system was quickly issued. Bitvault (https://swissbankinyourpocket.com/product/bitvault/) who are using the worlds first blockchain phone as a secure communication device and ultimately taking [font=Verdana][b]encryption[/b][/font] to the Internet Of Things (IoT) keeping our personal and business data secure. All this is done using [b]EOT coin [/b](Encryption of Things). In todays world insecure devices are rampant. Here are a couple of links about the CIA being able to use insecure devices to 'cause accidents' http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/cyber-life/sd-me-wikileaks-cia-20170307-story.html and https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/innovations/wp/2017/03/08/what-we-know-about-car-hacking-the-cia-and-those-wikileaks-claims/ It's scary to think a legal entity could posses such power over life. Just the mere fact alone the governing authority can request phone records (e.g. txt msgs, voice msgs or eavesdropping) proves most if not all telecommunication companies do not encrypt, otherwise whats the point on requesting the information!? (legal or not). Commercially sensitive information needs to be protected and most importantly in my opinion our [font=Verdana][b]rights[/b][/font] and the privacy of all citizens of the human race need to be protected. From my understanding BitVault is a platform for reference data. This would be data that is stored for compliance reasons such as e-mails, invoicing systems and check imaging (e.g. high quality imaging for x-rays, MRI scans etc) and a prototype was developed in 2004. This would means massive amount of data storage is required with fail-safe systems so a authorised user could access this information very very quickly. Three goals were needed to be achieved: Low cost, high reliability/availability and simplicity. This is the birth of Bitvault via EOT. Bitvault ultimately stores immutable objects with each new version being updated and identified with a 160-bit key. System stability is very important and must be immune to failure sequences. Parallel repair via indexing is one of the many strengths Bitvault has been able to demonstrate. BitVault is a back-end system that uses [u][b]Applications[/b][/u] to catalog object ID's. Using a catalog utility and indexing within an application prevented scalability bottlenecking under heavy loads. Fast forward 3 years to 2007 a very important decision was to [u][b]decentralise[/b][/u] BitVaults system. This in my opinion is one of the fundamental principles of cryptocurrency - [u][b]No one entity or person has any control of the data stored and only the authorised user can access this info[/b][/u]. Ultimate Security and thus personal safety (see above articles CIA hacks). BitVault using applications have been able to use provable communication and data storage with ease of retrieval with vital security measures. BitVault is not alone in researching solutions for security for the IoT, such as Venti and the like are making progress, however, BitVault is 'head and shoulders' above the few competitors and are already offering practical working solutions on the market with huge scalability that is cost effective. Well Done BitVault, well done EOT your secret is out and let the world embrace. author=Story777 link=topic=2091616.msg21462424#msg21462424 date=1504428317] I have had a response in Slack and it has satisfied my questions. Thank-you. For everyone information here it is: The currency was created with 200 Million EOT total supply on 7 July 2017 [ we showed it to the community a London Fintech week with the demonstration of the BitVault - fintechweek.com ] 100 Million was pre-mined and another 100 Million are currently being mined, 1 block every 90 seconds @ 100 coins per block. So the pre-mined coins were listed on waves as a token so that it can create a market for the coins while we are working to get listed on other exchanges. The 100 Million coins listed were distributed in several ways. Firstly, this was not an ICO because our business is already funded via private capital. We wanted to get the currency distributed a widely as possible. So most of the initial coins were given away to a number of interested parties. We distributed this to our whole development team, business partners, employees as well as to the waves and other communities. So we did not sell all these coins for the current price, most of it was given away for free to people that have an interest in our products and business. The price now is formed by whoever owns these coins. The tokens on the exchange is really a representation of the currency and as such has value because it can be interchanged, just like Bitcoin and Ethereum are on the waves exchange. This whole process is explained on page 4 of the waves whitepaper, I think they call it an asset-to-asset exchange which makes it possible to list any asset that exist on waves. Unfortunately waves only has gateways currently for Bitcoin, Ethereum, Waves, Euro and USD, so we have to develop our own gateway, which will be available on Nov 1. So to clarify 100,000,000 tokens costing $190M were not sold. It is a combination of airdrops, private sales and sales on the exchange. Some EOT coins are needed because: "A lot of EOT will be distributed through our devices. For example our encrypted routers are pre-loaded with EOT, so we need that stock and it will be distributed that way". And with the response to tokens on the Waves Exchange "This is how Bitcoin works on waves: - They created 21 Million BTC Tokens.. When you deposit Bitcoin into waves account, you receive an equal amount of tokens which you can either trade or even sent via the waves blockchain to another user.. Once you withdraw your tokens are exchanged for BTC and you receive it back into your BTC wallet.. Exactly the same for USD or EUR - You don't send Euro's to another client on waves if you transfer - you send a token that represents EUR -- This works exactly the w0083". These are the answers I was looking for and make a lot of sense now. This is indeed an exciting project. :) It's time to trade.... Now I have one question left.... Is there anyone using NiceHash to mine this coin?? I keep being disconnected because of the difficulty being too low. Can any one help? [quote author=Shews link=topic=2091616.msg22876983#msg22876983 date=1507755312] EOT (coin) is now tradable on the CryptoBridge Decentralised Exchange, you can sign up below. Please note this is for the EOT COIN ONLY, do not send tokens to this dex. This is a secure means to trade with the backend being on a blockchain. It is still in beta stage but has been working flawlessly so far. If you'd like more info I will post their website link is below. https://wallet.crypto-bridge.org/?r=388691 You can sign up with a local wallet mode, meaning you are the only one with access to your keys, this is most secure. There is also the option to sign up with and account if you require access to you funds on the go. More info: https://crypto-bridge.org/
Hey guys, I thought I would put together an in-depth tour of the Gridcoin wallet software for all of our recent newcomers. Here I'll be outlining all the features and functions the windows GUI wallet has to offer, along with some basic RPC command usage. I'll be using the windows wallet as an example, but both linux and macOS should be rather similar. I'll be including as many pictures as I can as embedded hyperlinks. Edit: Note that since I originally made this there has been a UI update, so your client will be different colors but all the button locations are in the same place. This is my first post like this, so please forgive me if this appears a little scatter-brained. This will not cover the mining setup process for pool or solo miners. When you launch the wallet software for the first time you should be greeted with this screen.
If you're a pool miner or investor, press cancel.
If you're a solo miner, enter your email you used to sign up for projects and press OK.
If you're not sure or haven't decided yet, press cancel. We can come back to this later.
After that prompt, you should be left sitting on the main overview tab with several fields on it. From top to bottom:
Available: All coins available to be sent or staked (I'll cover this term later).
Stake: All coins that are currently staking.
Unconfirmed: All coins that have been received and have not yet received 110 confirmations.
Total: All coins in your wallet. (The sum of the above fields)
Blocks: How many blocks your client has in it's chain. Your wallet just started syncing with the network so this number will be low.
Difficulty: How difficult it is for someone to stake the next block.
Net Weight: An estimate for how many coins are staking on the entire network.
Coin Weight: How many of your coins that are currently staking.
Magnitude: A quantifier for how much work you put in mining. For solo miners only. For pool miners, this value will always be 0.
Project: Displays the projects you're working on, one at a time. For solo miners only. For pool miners, this will always say "INVESTOR".
CPID: Cross Project Identifier. Used to keep track of users across projects. For solo miners only. For pool miners, this will always say "INVESTOR".
Status: Displays various status messages.
Current Poll: Displays the latest poll.
Client Messages: Displays various client messages.
Now onto the other tabs on the left side. Currently we're on the Overview tab, lets move down to the Send tab. This tab it pretty self-explanatory, you use it if you want to send coins, but I'll go over the fields here:
Pay To: Enter a valid gridcoin address to send coins too. Gridcoin addresses always start with an S or and R.
Label: Enter a label here and it will put that address in your "address book" under that label for later use. You can leave it blank if you don't want it in your address book.
Message: Enter a message here if you want it attached to your transaction.
Amount: How many coins you want to send.
Add Attachment: Leave this alone, it is broken.
Track Coins: This doesn't do anything.
Now down to the Receive tab. Here you should have a single address listed. If you double click on the label field, you can edit it's label.
New: Generate a new address.
If you click on an address, the rest of the options should be clickable.
Copy: Copy the selected address to your clipboard.
Show QR Code: Show a scan-able QR code for the selected address.
Sign Message: Cryptographically sign a message using the selected address.
The Transactions tab is pretty boring considering we have no transactions yet. But as you can see there are some sorting tools at the top for when you do have transactions listed.
ADDRESS BOOK TAB
The Address Book is where all the addresses you've labeled (that aren't yours) will show up.
Verify Message: Verifies a message was signed by the selected address.
The rest of the functions are similar to the functions on the Receive tab.
Onto the Voting tab. There wont be any polls because we aren't in sync yet.
Reload Polls: Pretty self-explanatory, I've never had to use this.
Load History: By default, the wallet will only display active polls. If you want to view past polls you can use this.
Create Poll: You can create a network-wide poll. You must have 100,000 coins as a requirement to make a poll. (Creating a poll does not consume the coins)
Display coin control features (experts only!): This allows you to have a great deal of control over the coins in your wallet, check this for now and I'll explain how to use it further down. Don't forget to click "Apply".
ENCRYPTING YOUR WALLET
Now that all of that is out of the way. The first thing you'll want to do is encrypt your wallet. This prevents anybody with access to your computer from sending coins. This is something I would recommend everyone do. Go to Settings > Encrypt Wallet and create a password. YOU CANNOT RECOVER YOUR COINS IF YOU FORGET YOUR PASSWORD. Your wallet will close and you will have to start it up again. This time when it opens up, you should have a new button in the bottom left. Now if you want to stake you will have to unlock your wallet. Notice the "For staking only" box that is checked by default. If you want to send a beacon for solo mining or vote, you will need to uncheck this box.
GETTING IN SYNC AND ICONS
Before we continue, Let's wait until we're in sync. Depending on your internet speeds, this could take from several hours to over a day or 2. This can be sped up by using Advanced > Download Blocks, but this can still take several hours. This is what an in-sync client should look like. Notice the green check to the right of the Receive tab. All of these icons give you information when you hover your mouse over them. The lock The arrow tells you if you're staking. If you aren't staking, it will tell you why you're not staking. If you are staking it will give you an estimated staking time. Staking is a very random process and this is only an estimate, not a countdown. The connection bars tell you how many connections to the network you have. The check tells you if you're in sync.
WHAT IS STAKING?
Now I've said "stake" about a million times so far and haven't explained it. Gridcoin is a Proof of Stake (PoS) coin. Unlike bitcoins Proof of Work (PoW), PoS uses little system resources, so you can use those resources for scientific work. PoS works by users "Staking" with their balance. The higher the balance, the higher the chance to create, or "stake" a block. This means you need to have a positive balance in order to stake. Theoretically, you can stake with any amount over 0.0125 coins, but in practice it's recommended to have at least 2000 coins to reliably stake. Staking is important for solo miners, because they get paid when they stake. Pool miners don't need to stake in order to get paid however. So if you want to solo mine, you'll need to buy some coins from an exchange or start in the pool first and move to solo when you have enough coins. In addition to Research Rewards for miners, anyone who holds coins (solo miners, pool miners, and investors) gets 1.5% interest annually on top of your coins. So it can be beneficial for pool miners to stake as well. Here is a snippet of what a research rewards transaction looks like from my personal wallet. I have a label on that address of "Payout address" as you can see here.
UTXOS AND COIN CONTROL
At this point you'll need some coins. You can use one of our faucets like this one or this one to test coin control out. First let me explain what a UTXO is. UTXO stands for Unspent Transaction Output. Say you have an address with 0 coins in it, and someone sends you 10 coins like I've done here. Those 10 coins are added to that address in the form of a UTXO, so we have an address with one 10 coin UTXO in it. Now we receive another 5 coins at the same address, like so. Now we have an address with one 10 coin UTXO and one 5 coin UTXO. But how do we view how our addresses are split up into different UTXOs? Earlier we checked the "Display coin control features" box in Settings > Options > Display. Once that's checked you'll notice there's another section in the Send tab labeled "Coin Control Features". If you click the "Inputs" button, you'll get a new window. And look, there's our 2 UTXOs. All UTXOs try to stake separately from each other, and remember that the chance a UTXO has to stake is proportional to it's size. So in this situation, my 10 coin UTXO has twice the chance to stake as my 5 coin UTXO. Now wallets, especially ones that make a lot of transactions, can get very fragmented over time. I've fragmented my wallet a little so I can show you what I'm talking about. How do we clean this up? We can consolidate all this into one UTXO by checking all the boxes on the left and selecting OK. Now pay attention to the fields on the top:
Quantity: The total amount of UTXOs we have selected.
Amount: The total amount of coins we have selected.
Fee: How much it would cost in fees to send all those UTXOs (more UTXOs = more transaction data = more fees)
After Fee: Amount - Fees.
Bytes: How large the transaction is in bytes.
Priority: How your client would prioritize making a transaction with this specific set of UTXOs selected had you not used coin control.
Low Output: If your transaction is less than 0.01 coins (I think).
custom change address: You can set the address you get your change back at, by default it will generate a new address.
So let's fill out our transaction so we end up with 1 UTXO at the end. In "Pay To:" Just put any address in your wallet, and for the amount put what it has listed in the "After Fee" Field. Just like this. Notice how we get no change back. Now click "Send", we'll be prompted to enter our passphrase and we're asked if we want to pay the fee, go ahead and click "Yes". Now if we go back to the Overview tab we get this funky icon. If you hover your mouse over it, it says "Payment to yourself", and the -0.0002 GRC is the network transaction fee. (Ignore the first one, that was me fragmenting my wallet) Now if we look at the Coin Control menu, we can see that we've slimmed our wallet down from 7 UTXOs to 1. Now why would you want to use coin control? 2 Situations:
UTXOs less than 0.0125 coins cannot stake. So you can combine a lot of tiny, useless UTXOs into 1 bigger one that can stake.
After a UTXO stakes, it cannot stake for another 16 hours. So if you have 1 large UTXO that is big enough to stake more than once every 16 hours, you can split it into smaller UTXOs which can allow you to stake slightly more often.
By default, the wallet will always generate a new address for change, which can make your wallet get very messy if you're sending lots of transactions. Keep in mind that more UTXOs = larger transactions = more fees.
Sidenote - When you stake, you will earn all research rewards owed reguardless of which UTXO staked. However, you'll earn the 1.5% interest for that UTXO. Not your whole wallet.
A fork is when the network splits into multiple chains, with part of the network on each chain. A fork can happen when 2 blocks are staked by different clients at the same time or very close to the same time, or when your client rejects a block that should have been accepted due to a bug in the code or through some other unique circumstance. How do I know if I'm on a fork? Generally you can spot a fork by looking at the difficulty on your Overview tab. With current network conditions, if your difficulty is below 0.1, then you're probably on a fork. You can confirm this by comparing your blockhash with someone elses, like a block explorer. Go to [Help > Debug Window > Console]. This is the RPC console, we can use to do a lot of things. You can type help to get a list of commands, and you can type help [command you need help with] (without the brackets) to get information on a command. We'll be using the getblockhash [block number] command. Type getblockhash [block number] in the console, but replace [block number] with the number listed next to the "Blocks:" field on the Overview tab. This will spit out a crazy string of characters, this is the "blockhash" of that block. Now head over to your favorite block explorer, I'll be using gridcoinstats. Find the block that you have the hash for, use the search bar or just find it in the list of blocks. Now compare your hash with the one gridcoinstats gives you. Does it match? If it matches, then you're probably good to go. If it matches but you still think you're on a fork, then you can try other block explorers, such as gridcoin.network or neuralminer.io. If it doesn't match, then you need to try to get off that fork. How do I get off a fork?
Just wait for an hour or two. 95% of the time your client is able to recover itself from a fork given a little time.
Restart the client, wait a few minutes to see if it fixes itself. If it doesn't restart again and wait. Repeat about 4 or 5 times.
Find where the fork started. Using the getblockhash command, go back some blocks and compare hashes with that on a block explorer so you can narrow down what the last block you and the block explorer had in common. Then use reorganize [the last block hash you had in common]. Note that reorganize takes a blockhash, not a block number.
A listening node is a node that listens for blocks and transactions broadcasted from nodes and forwards them on to other nodes. For example, during the syncing process when you're getting your node running for the first time, you're downloading all the blocks from listening nodes. So running a listening node helps support the network. Running a gridcoin listening node is simple. All you need to do is add listen=1 to your gridcoinresearch.conf and you need to forward port 32749 on your router. If you don't know how to port forward, I'd suggest googling "How to port forward [your router manufacturer]".
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