A Beginner's Guide to Cryptocoin Mining: What You Need to ...

What I currently use for privacy (after almost 2 years of long investing into it)

First of all, my threat model: I'm just an average person that wants to AVOID the maximum I can to be monitored and tracked by the government and big corps, a lot of people out there REALLY hate me and I've gone through lots of harassment and other stuff, I also plan to take my activism and love for freedom more seriously and to do stuff that could potentially lead me to very high danger or even put my life on the line. That being said, my main focus is on something that is privacy-friendly but also something with decent security (no point having a lot of privacy if a script kiddie can just break into it an boom, everything is gone) anonymity is also desirable but I'm pretty aware that true 100% anonymity is simply not possible and to achieve the maximum you can of it currently you'd have to give up A LOT of stuff in which I don't think I really could. So basically, everything that I said + I don't want to give up some hobbies of mine (as playing games etc)
Here's what I use/have done so far, most of it is based on privacytools.io list and research I've done.
Google Pixel 3a XL running GrapheneOS
Apps: Stock apps (Vanadium, Gallery, Clock, Contacts etc) + F-DROID, NewPipe, OsmAnd+, Joplin, Tutanota, K-9 Mail, Aegis Authenticator, KeePassDX, Syncthing, Signal, Librera PRO, Vinyl, Open Camera and Wireguard.
I also use BlahDNS as my private DNS.
Other smartphone stuff/habits: I use a Supershieldz Anti Spy Tempered Glass Screen Protector on my phone and I also have a Faraday Sleeve from Silent Pocket which my phone is on most of the times (I don't have smartphone addiction and would likely advice you to break free from smartphone addiction if you have it). I NEVER use bluetooth (thank god Pixel 3a have a headphone jack so yeah, no bluetooth earphones here) and always keep my Wi-Fi off if I'm not using it.
I have a desktop that I built (specs: Asus B450M Gaming, AMD Ryzen 3 3300X, Radeon RX 580 8GB, 16GB DDR4 2666Mhz, 3TB HDD, 480GB SSD) that is dualbooted with QubesOS and Arch Linux.
Qubes is my main OS that I use as daily driver and for my tasks, I use Arch for gaming.
I've installed linux-hardened and its headers packages on my Arch + further kernel hardening using systctl and boot parameters, AppArmor as my MAC system and bubblewrap for sandboxing programs. I also spoof my MAC address and have restricted root access, I've also protected my GRUB with password (and use encrypted boot) and have enabled Microcode updates and have NTP and IPV6 disabled.
Also on Arch, I use iptables as a firewall denying all incoming traffic, and since it's my gaming PC, I don't game on the OS, instead, I use a KVM/QEMU Windows VM for gaming (search "How I Built The "Poor-Shamed" Computer" video to see what I'm talking about) I also use full disk encryption.
E-Mails: I use ProtonMail (Plus Account paid with bitcoin) and Tutanota (free account as they don't accept crypto payment yet, come on Tutanota, I've been waiting for it for 2 years already) since I have plus account on ProtonMail it allows me to use ProtonMail Bridge and use it on Claws Mail (desktop) and K-9 Mail (mobile) as for Tutanota I use both desktop and mobile app.
Some other e-mails habits of mine: I use e-mail aliases (ProtonMail plus account provides you with 5) and each alias is used for different tasks (as one for shopping, one for banking, one for accounts etc) and none of my e-mails have my real name on it or something that could be used to identify me. I also highly avoid using stuff that require e-mail/e-mail verification for usage (e-mail is such a pain in the ass tbh) I also make use of Spamgourmet for stuff like temporary e-mail (best service I found for this doing my research, dunno if it's really the best tho, heard that AnonAddy does kinda the same stuff but dunno, recommendations are welcomed)
Browsers/Search Engine: As mentioned, I use Vanadium (Graphene's stock browser) on mobile as it is the recommended browser by Graphene and the one with the best security for Android, for desktop I use a Hardened Firefox (pretty aware of Firefox's security not being that good, but it's the best browser for PC for me as Ungoogled Chromium is still not there in A LOT of things + inherent problems of Chrome as not being able to disable WebRTC unless you use an extension etc) with ghacks-user.js and uBlock Origin (hard mode), uMatrix (globally blocking first party scripts), HTTPS Everywhere (EASE Mode), Decentraleyes (set the recommended rules for both uBlock Origin and uMatrix) and Temporary Containers as addons. I also use Tor Browser (Safest Mode) on a Whonix VM on Qubes sometimes. DuckDuckGo is my to-go search engine and I use DNS over HTTPS on Firefox (BlahDNS as my provider once again)
browsing habits: I avoid JavaScript the maximum I can, if it's really needed, I just allow the scripts temporarely on uBlock Origin/uMatrix and after I'm done I just disable it. I also generally go with old.reddit.com instead of reddit.com (as JavaScript is not required to browse the old client), nitter.net for checking twitter stuff (although I rarely have something peaking my interest on Twitter) and I use invidious.snopyta.org as youtube front-end (I do however use YouTube sometimes if a video I wanna see can't be played on invidious or if I wanna watch a livestream) and html.duckduckgo.com instead of duckduckgo.com other than avoiding JavaScript most of my browsing habits are just common sense at this point I'd say, I also use privatebin (snopyta's instance) instead of pastebin. I also have multiple firefox profiles for different tasks (personal usage, shopping, banking etc)
VPN: I use Mullvad (guess you can mention it here since it's PTIO's recommended) paid with bitcoin and honestly best service available tbh. I use Mullvad's multihop implementation on Wireguard which I manually set myself as I had the time and patience to learn how.
password manager: KeePassXC on desktop and KeePassDX on my smartphone, my password database for my desktop is stored on a USB flash driver I encrypted with VeraCrypt.
some other software on desktop: LibreOffice (as a Microsoft Office substitute), GIMP (Photshop substitute), Vim (I use it for multiple purposes, mainly coding IDE and as a text editor), VLC (media player), Bisq (bitcoin exchange), Wasabi (bitcoin wallet), OBS (screen recording), Syncthing (file sync), qBitTorrent (torrent client) and Element (federated real-time communication software). I sadly couldn't find a good open-source substitute to Sony Vegas (tested many, but none was in the same level of Vegas imo, KDENLive is okay tho) so I just use it on a VM if I need it (Windows VM solely for the purpose of video editing, not the same one I use for gaming)
router: I have an Asus RT-AC68U with OpenWRT as its firmware. I also set a VPN on it.
cryptocurrency hardware wallet: I store all of my cryptocurrency (Bitcoin and Monero) on a Ledger Nano S, about 97% of my money is on crypto so a hardware wallet is a must for me.
I have lots of USB flash drivers that I use for Live ISOs and for encrypted backups. I also have a USB Data Blocker from PortaPow that I generally use if I need to charge my cellphone in public or in a hotel while on a trip (rare occasion tbh).
I have a Logitech C920e as webcam and a Blue Yeti microphone in which I never let them plugged, I only plug them if it's necessary and after I'm done I just unplug them.
I also have a Nintendo Switch Lite as a gaming console that I most of the times just use offline, I just connect to the internet if needed for a software update and then just turn the Wi-Fi off from it.
Other Habits/Things I've done:
payments: I simply AVOID using credit card, I try to always pay on cash (I live in a third-world country so thank god most of people here still depend on cash only) physically and online I try my best to either by using cryptocurrency or using gift cards/cash by mail if crypto isn't available. I usually buy crypto on Bisq as I just don't trust any KYC exchange (and neither should you) and since there aren't many people here in my area to do face to face bitcoin trade (and I'm skeptical of face to face tbh), I use the Wasabi Wallet (desktop) to coinjoin bitcoin before buying anything as this allows a bit more of privacy, I also coinjoin on Wasabi before sending my bitcoins to my hardware wallet. I also don't have a high consumerism drive so I'm not constantly wanting to buy everything that I see (which helps a lot on this criteria)
social media/accounts: as noted, aside from Signal and Element (which I don't even use that often) I just don't REALLY use any social media (tried Mastodon for a while but I was honestly felt it kinda desert there and most of its userbase from what I've seen were some people I'd just... rather don't hang with tbh) and, althoug not something necessary is something that I really advise people to as social media is literally a poison to your mind.
I also don't own any streaming service like Netflix/Amazon Prime/Spotify etc, I basically pirate series/movies/songs and that's it.
I've also deleted ALL my old accounts from social media (like Twitter etc) and old e-mails. ALL of my important and main accounts have 2FA enabled and are protected by a strong password (I use KeePass to generate a 35 character lenght password with numbers, capital letters, special symbols etc, each account uses a unique password) I also NEVER use my real name on any account and NEVER post any pictures of myself (I rarely take pictures of stuff if anything)
iot/smart devices: aside from my smartphone, I don't have any IOT/smart device as I honestly see no need for them (and most of them are WAY too expensive on third-world countries)
files: I constatly backup all of my files (each two weeks) on encrypted flash drivers, I also use BleachBit for temporary data cleaning and data/file shredding. I also use Syncthing as a substitute to stuff like Google Drive.
Future plans:
learn to self-host and self-host an e-mail/NextCloud (and maybe even a VPN)
find something like BurneHushed but FOSS (if you know any please let me know)
So, how is it? anything that I should do that I'm probably not doing?
submitted by StunningDistrust to privacytoolsIO [link] [comments]

Same lies about Dash still floating around - Time for another crackdown

This article was caught by our spamfilter because it's hosted on a reward-for-article platform (similar to steemit). Nonetheless I will respond to it, as it recycles the same old lies about Dash many of us have grown used to and it serves as in illustration that these lies and accusations are still after 6 years regurgitated 1:1 by ignorant bystanders without a single critical thought behind them.
The article is a real mess as you will notice. The author didn't even bother to edit the question section into Dash from ZCash. Anyway, that's not the real issue. This is about the section "Dash Launch And Issuance" which I am about to respond to.
The Dash cryptocurrency has a rather controversial launch and issuance as it involved a 2-day ‘instamine’ or ‘premine’
There is a huge difference between a premine and a fastmine. Conflating the two shows the author is either ignorant and thus unqualified to talk about the subject matter or tries to mislead the reader. A premine means the public is excluded from mining, which provably never happened in Dash, thus the term is 100% inapplicable.
According to Dash’s founder, Evan Duffield, this premine was the result of a bug. However, there are many people who beg to differ.
Those who "beg to differ" are idiots plain and simple. Because we have already proven that the same thing happened 2.5 years earlier in Litecoin from which Dash originally forked off (and not from Bitcoin as the author initially claims at the beginning of the article).
To ‘resolve’ the situation, the majority of these instamined coins were sold for very low prices on exchanges. However, it is widely believed that most of these coins were simply scooped up by Evan Duffield and the Dash core team for incredibly low prices.
This is my favorite part, because it's probably the only original thought in the article, as I have never heard anyone make up something so incoherently dumb with regards to Dash's launch.
First they say, Evan mined "all the coins by himself" now suddenly he's buying coins for "incredibly low prices"?! So, which is it? Can't have it both ways. Or did he buy coins from himself?
Let's cut the crap. Is it too hard to simply admit the coins were sold on the free and open market to ANYONE willing to buy them?? Nothing was sold to "resolve" anything.
Anyone, not just Evan and the team, had the chance to buy cheap coins for under a Dollar, which was fair and square, hands down. Those who missed out crying foul today are really just trying too hard. Also Dash Core did not exist in 2014. Again the author shows his ignorance further disqualifying himself.
Duffield released Dash before its intended release date (which means the instamine that occurred can be classified as a premine).
This is a lie. It did not happen as anyone can see on the blockchain. The author is a liar.
Dash’s instamine happened because Dash was launched with a block reward of 500 coins per block before it was abruptly cut 2 days later after 2million coins were instamined.
Of course the fix would happen "abruptly" as soon as the necessary blockheight was reached, otherwise it would've gone on forever. It was a mess up and nobody denies this. The fact remains that the coins were sold for pennies as my analysis has shown. Here Evan talks about the launch himself. He clearly states that coins were spilt out too fast and he was under immense pressure to fix it asap.
Initially, Dash was only minable on Linux, which could have been intended so that fewer people would mine Dash and Duffield and Dash’s core team could dominate mining (over 90% of all computers use the Windows operating system).
Conjecture without a shred of evidence assuming ill-intent over good faith. Back in 2014 mining was still a niche hobby by nerds where Linux was the dominating operating system. Evan is a nerd who was using Linux at the time. He didn't own a Windows machine. If he did, why would he offer a reward to someone compiling a Windows binary? If he was the evil fastminer everyone accuses him of, it would be in his best interest to delay Windows mining as much as possible. The accusation holds no water.
Evan Duffield was able to temporarily mine Dash by himself for a while when the public miner wasn't working.
Lie. Lie. Lie. This never happened and the author is still a liar. I know what this alludes to and I have thoroughly debunked it as the nonsense it is.
Dash was initially meant to have a max supply of 80 million DASH, but Evan Duffield held an obscure poll where the majority of the voters voted to reduce the Dash max coin supply from 80million to 20million (which instantly made the instamined DASH worth more).
First of all the value of all coins goes up with a lower supply, not just those that were first mined (duh!). This is intellectual dishonesty, but hardly surprising considering the previous lies of the author. Second, this poll is near worthless as a historic summary as it ignores what went down in the community before: Watch this analysis by Tao of Satoshi to learn that there was major community pressure on Evan's back with endless debates on how to change the reward structure and emission rate of Dash until it was finally settled after a full 7 adjustments in both directions. The narrative that there was one evil singular supply decrease to maliciously enrich Evan is completely stupid.
All in all, Dash’s launch is shrouded in controversy, and it's clear that Evan Duffield and Dash developers benefited tremendously from how everything went down.
The only thing shrouded in mystery is why anyone would believe these false conclusions, accusations and flat out lies when the facts are readily accessible. Of course the founder of any cryptocurrency benefits the most. It's how it's supposed to be. Satoshi "benefitted tremendously" as well from launching Bitcoin. The fact that Evan was able to quit his day job and work for Dash full time was the best thing that could have ever happened to this project. Of course our detractors don't like that, because they don't want to see Dash succeed. But we did and we're still here after 6 years of ceaseless innovation. Repeating ancient lies cannot undo that.
submitted by Basilpop to dashpay [link] [comments]

Looking back 18 months.

I was going through old emails today and came across this one I sent out to family on January 4, 2018. It was a reflection on the 2017 crypto bull market and where I saw it heading, as well as some general advice on crypto, investment, and being safe about how you handle yourself in cryptoland.
I feel that we are on the cusp of a new bull market right now, so I thought that I would put this out for at least a few people to see *before* the next bull run, not after. While the details have changed, I don't see a thing in this email that I fundamentally wouldn't say again, although I'd also probably insist that people get a Yubikey and use that for all 2FA where it is supported.
Happy reading, and sorry for some of the formatting weirdness -- I cleaned it up pretty well from the original email formatting, but I love lists and indents and Reddit has limitations... :-/
Also, don't laught at my token picks from January 2018! It was a long time ago and (luckliy) I took my own advice about moving a bunch into USD shortly after I sent this. I didn't hit the top, and I came back in too early in the summer of 2018, but I got lucky in many respects.
----------------------------------------------------------------------- Jan-4, 2018
Hey all!
I woke up this morning to ETH at a solid $1000 and decided to put some thoughts together on what I think crypto has done and what I think it will do. *******, if you could share this to your kids I’d appreciate it -- I don’t have e-mail addresses, and it’s a bit unwieldy for FB Messenger… Hopefully they’ll at least find it thought-provoking. If not, they can use it as further evidence that I’m a nutjob. 😉
Some history before I head into the future.
I first mined some BTC in 2011 or 2012 (Can’t remember exactly, but it was around the Christmas holidays when I started because I had time off from work to get it set up and running.) I kept it up through the start of summer in 2012, but stopped because it made my PC run hot and as it was no longer winter, ********** didn’t appreciate the sound of the fans blowing that hot air into the room any more. I’ve always said that the first BTC I mined was at $1, but looking back at it now, that’s not true – It was around $2. Here’s a link to BTC price history.
In the summer of 2013 I got a new PC and moved my programs and files over before scrapping the old one. I hadn’t touched my BTC mining folder for a year then, and I didn’t even think about salvaging those wallet files. They are now gone forever, including the 9-10BTC that were in them. While I can intellectually justify the loss, it was sloppy and underlines a key thing about cryptocurrency that I believe will limit its widespread adoption by the general public until it is addressed and solved: In cryptoland, you are your own bank, and if you lose your password or account number, there is no person or organization that can help you reset it so that you can get access back. Your money is gone forever.
On April 12, 2014 I bought my first BTC through Coinbase. BTC had spiked to $1000 and been in the news, at least in Japan. This made me remember my old wallet and freak out for a couple of months trying to find it and reclaim the coins. I then FOMO’d (Fear Of Missing Out”) and bought $100 worth of BTC. I was actually very lucky in my timing and bought at around $430. Even so, except for a brief 50% swing up almost immediately afterwards that made me check prices 5 times a day, BTC fell below my purchase price by the end of September and I didn’t get back to even until the end of 2015.
In May 2015 I bought my first ETH at around $1. I sent some guy on bitcointalk ~$100 worth of BTC and he sent me 100 ETH – all on trust because the amounts were small and this was a small group of people. BTC was down in the $250 range at that point, so I had lost 30-40% of my initial investment. This was of the $100 invested, so not that much in real terms, but huge in percentages. It also meant that I had to buy another $100 of BTC on Coinbase to send to this guy. A few months after I purchased my ETH, BTC had doubled and ETH had gone down to $0.50, halving the value of my ETH holdings. I was even on the first BTC purchase finally, but was now down 50% on the ETH I had bought.
The good news was that this made me start to look at things more seriously. Where I had skimmed white papers and gotten a superficial understanding of the technology before FOMO’ing, I started to act as an investor, not a speculator. Let me define how I see those two different types of activity:
So what has been my experience as an investor? After sitting out the rest of 2015 because I needed to understand the market better, I bought into ETH quite heavily, with my initial big purchases being in March-April of 2016. Those purchases were in the $11-$14 range. ETH, of course, dropped immediately to under $10, then came back and bounced around my purchase range for a while until December of 2016, when I purchased a lot more at around $8.
I also purchased my first ICO in August of 2016, HEAT. I bought 25ETH worth. Those tokens are now worth about half of their ICO price, so about 12.5ETH or $12500 instead of the $25000 they would be worth if I had just kept ETH. There are some other things with HEAT that mean I’ve done quite a bit better than those numbers would suggest, but the fact is that the single best thing I could have done is to hold ETH and not spend the effort/time/cost of working with HEAT. That holds true for about every top-25 token on the market when compared to ETH. It certainly holds true for the many, many tokens I tried to trade in Q1-Q2 of 2017. In almost every single case I would have done better and slept better had I just held ETH instead of trying to be smarter than Mr. Market.
But, I made money on all of them except one because the crypto market went up more in USD terms than any individual coin went down in ETH or BTC terms. This underlines something that I read somewhere and that I take to heart: A rising market makes everyone seem like a genius. A monkey throwing darts at a list of the top 100 cryptocurrencies last year would have doubled his money. Here’s a chart from September that shows 2017 year-to-date returns for the top 10 cryptocurrencies, and all of them went up a *lot* more between then and December. A monkey throwing darts at this list there would have quintupled his money.
When evaluating performance, then, you have to beat the monkey, and preferably you should try to beat a Wall Street monkey. I couldn’t, so I stopped trying around July 2017. My benchmark was the BLX, a DAA (Digital Asset Array – think fund like a Fidelity fund) created by ICONOMI. I wasn’t even close to beating the BLX returns, so I did several things.
  1. I went from holding about 25 different tokens to holding 10 now. More on that in a bit.
  2. I used those funds to buy ETH and BLX. ETH has done crazy-good since then and BLX has beaten BTC handily, although it hasn’t done as well as ETH.
  3. I used some of those funds to set up an arbitrage operation.
The arbitrage operation is why I kept the 11 tokens that I have now. All but a couple are used in an ETH/token pair for arbitrage, and each one of them except for one special case is part of BLX. Why did I do that? I did that because ICONOMI did a better job of picking long-term holds than I did, and in arbitrage the only speculative thing you must do is pick the pairs to trade. My pairs are (No particular order):
I also hold PLU, PLBT, and ART. These two are multi-year holds for me. I have not purchased BTC once since my initial $200, except for a few cases where BTC was the only way to go to/from an altcoin that didn’t trade against ETH yet. Right now I hold about the same 0.3BTC that I held after my first $100 purchase, so I don’t really count it.
Looking forward to this year, I am positioning myself as follows:
Looking at my notes, I have two other things that I wanted to work into this email that I didn’t get to, so here they are:
  1. Just like with free apps and other software, if you are getting something of value and you didn’t pay anything for it, you need to ask why this is. With apps, the phrase is “If you didn’t pay for the product, you are the product”, and this works for things such as pump groups, tips, and even technical analysis. Here’s how I see it.
    1. People don’t give tips on stocks or crypto that they don’t already own that stock or token. Why would they, since if they convince anyone to buy it, the price only goes up as a result, making it more expensive for them to buy in? Sure, you will have friends and family that may do this, but people in a crypto club, your local cryptocurrency meetup, or online are generally not your friends. They are there to make money, and if they can get you to help them make money, they will do it. Pump groups are the worst of these, and no matter how enticing it may look, stay as far away as possible from these scams. I even go so far as to report them when I see them advertise on FB or Twitter, because they are violating the terms of use.
    2. Technical analysis (TA) is something that has been argued about for longer than I’ve been alive, but I think that it falls into the same boat. In short, TA argues that there are patterns in trading that can be read and acted upon to signal when one must buy or sell. It has been used forever in the stock and foreign exchange markets, and people use it in crypto as well. Let’s break down these assumptions a bit.
i. First, if crypto were like the stock or forex markets we’d all be happy with 5-7% gains per year rather than easily seeing that in a day. For TA to work the same way in crypto as it does in stocks and foreign exchange, the signals would have to be *much* stronger and faster-reacting than they work in the traditional market, but people use them in exactly the same way.
ii. Another area where crypto is very different than the stock and forex markets centers around market efficiency theory. This theory says that markets are efficient and that the price reflects all the available information at any given time. This is why gold in New York is similar in price to gold in London or Shanghai, and why arbitrage margins are easily <0.1% in those markets compared to cryptoland where I can easily get 10x that. Crypto simply has too much speculation and not enough professional traders in it yet to operate as an efficient market. That fundamentally changes the way that the market behaves and should make any TA patterns from traditional markets irrelevant in crypto.
iii. There are services, both free and paid that claim to put out signals based on TA for when one should buy and sell. If you think for even a second that they are not front-running (Placing orders ahead of yours to profit.) you and the other people using the service, you’re naïve.
iv. Likewise, if you don’t think that there are people that have but together computerized systems to get ahead of people doing manual TA, you’re naïve. The guys that I have programming my arbitrage bots have offered to build me a TA bot and set up a service to sell signals once our position is taken. I said no, but I am sure that they will do it themselves or sell that to someone else. Basically they look at TA as a tip machine where when a certain pattern is seen, people act on that “tip”. They use software to see that “tip” faster and take a position on it so that when slower participants come in they either have to sell lower or buy higher than the TA bot did. Remember, if you are getting a tip for free, you’re the product. In TA I see a system when people are all acting on free preset “tips” and getting played by the more sophisticated market participants. Again, you have to beat that Wall Street monkey.
  1. If you still don’t agree that TA is bogus, think about it this way: If TA was real, Wall Street would have figured it out decades ago and we would have TA funds that would be beating the market. We don’t.
  2. If you still don’t agree that TA is bogus and that its real and well, proven, then you must think that all smart traders use them. Now follow that logic forward and think about what would happen if every smart trader pushing big money followed TA. The signals would only last for a split second and would then be overwhelmed by people acting on them, making them impossible to leverage. This is essentially what the efficient market theory postulates for all information, including TA.
OK, the one last item. Read this weekly newsletter – You can sign up at the bottom. It is free, so they’re selling something, right? 😉 From what I can tell, though, Evan is a straight-up guy who posts links and almost zero editorial comments.
Happy 2018.
submitted by uetani to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

⟳ 870 apps added, 78 updated at f-droid.org

Notice: this update is spurious, and the issue is being looked at.
⟳ f-droid.org from Wed, 26 Feb 2020 20:21:50 GMT updated on Sun, 01 Mar 2020 05:23:29 GMT contains 2962 apps.
Added (870)
Updated (78)
submitted by BrainstormBot to FDroidUpdates [link] [comments]

A tour of the Gridcoin wallet

Hey guys, I thought I would put together an in-depth tour of the Gridcoin wallet software for all of our recent newcomers. Here I'll be outlining all the features and functions the windows GUI wallet has to offer, along with some basic RPC command usage. I'll be using the windows wallet as an example, but both linux and macOS should be rather similar. I'll be including as many pictures as I can as embedded hyperlinks.
Edit: Note that since I originally made this there has been a UI update, so your client will be different colors but all the button locations are in the same place.
This is my first post like this, so please forgive me if this appears a little scatter-brained.
This will not cover the mining setup process for pool or solo miners.
When you launch the wallet software for the first time you should be greeted with this screen.


After that prompt, you should be left sitting on the main overview tab with several fields on it.
From top to bottom:


Now onto the other tabs on the left side. Currently we're on the Overview tab, lets move down to the Send tab. This tab it pretty self-explanatory, you use it if you want to send coins, but I'll go over the fields here:
  • Pay To: Enter a valid gridcoin address to send coins too. Gridcoin addresses always start with an S or and R.
  • Label: Enter a label here and it will put that address in your "address book" under that label for later use. You can leave it blank if you don't want it in your address book.
  • Message: Enter a message here if you want it attached to your transaction.
  • Amount: How many coins you want to send.
  • Add Attachment: Leave this alone, it is broken.
  • Track Coins: This doesn't do anything.


Now down to the Receive tab. Here you should have a single address listed. If you double click on the label field, you can edit it's label.
  • New: Generate a new address.
If you click on an address, the rest of the options should be clickable.
  • Copy: Copy the selected address to your clipboard.
  • Show QR Code: Show a scan-able QR code for the selected address.
  • Sign Message: Cryptographically sign a message using the selected address.


The Transactions tab is pretty boring considering we have no transactions yet. But as you can see there are some sorting tools at the top for when you do have transactions listed.


The Address Book is where all the addresses you've labeled (that aren't yours) will show up.
  • Verify Message: Verifies a message was signed by the selected address.
The rest of the functions are similar to the functions on the Receive tab.


Onto the Voting tab. There wont be any polls because we aren't in sync yet.
  • Reload Polls: Pretty self-explanatory, I've never had to use this.
  • Load History: By default, the wallet will only display active polls. If you want to view past polls you can use this.
  • Create Poll: You can create a network-wide poll. You must have 100,000 coins as a requirement to make a poll. (Creating a poll does not consume the coins)
Here's what the Voting tab will look like once you're in sync


Now onto the context bar menus on the top.
Under File you have:
  • Backup Wallet/Config: This lets you backup your wallet configuration file just in case.
  • Export: You can export your Transactions tab or Address Book in CSV format.
  • Sign message: Does the same thing as on the Receive tab.
  • Verify message: Does the same thing as on the Address Book tab.
  • Exit: Close the wallet.
Under Settings you have:
  • Encrypt Wallet: Encrypts your wallet with a password. (we'll come back to this)
  • Change Passphrase: Allows you to change your encryption password.
  • Options: Opens the options menu. (We'll come back to this)
Under Community you have:
Under Advanced you have:
  • Advanced Configuration: Opens the Advanced Configuration menu. (Not so advanced if you ask me)
  • Neural Network: Allows you to view solo miners project statistics. It will be largely blank if you're not in sync yet.
  • FAQ: Don't touch this, It is broken.
  • Foundation: Don't touch this, It is broken.
  • Rebuild Block Chain: Starts the client syncing from 0. Don't worry, using this will not make you lose coins.
  • Download Blocks: Downloads the latest official snapshot, can help speed up syncing. The download progress tends to sit at 99.99% for a long time, don't worry, it's working.
Under Help you have:
  • Debug window: Opens the debug window. (We'll come back to this)
  • Diagnostics: Don't touch this, it is broken. This has since been fixed. You can use this to see if there is anything wrong with your setup.
  • About Gridcoin: Opens the About Dialog. This gives you your client version and other information.


Now back to the options menu under Settings > Options.
Here we have the options menu main tab:
  • Pay transaction fee: The transaction fee that will be automatically paid when you make a transaction.
  • Reserve: You can reserve an amount so that it will always be available for spending.
  • Start Gridcoin on system login: Pretty self-explanatory
  • Detach databases at shutdown: Speeds up shutdown, but causes your blockchain file to no longer be portable.
On the Network tab:
  • Map port using UPnP: Attempts to connect to nodes through UPnP.
  • Connect through SOCKS proxy: Allows you to connect through a proxy.
The window tab is pretty self-explanatory.
The Display tab is also pretty self-explanatory, with the exception of:
  • Display coin control features (experts only!): This allows you to have a great deal of control over the coins in your wallet, check this for now and I'll explain how to use it further down. Don't forget to click "Apply".


Now that all of that is out of the way. The first thing you'll want to do is encrypt your wallet. This prevents anybody with access to your computer from sending coins. This is something I would recommend everyone do.
Go to Settings > Encrypt Wallet and create a password. YOU CANNOT RECOVER YOUR COINS IF YOU FORGET YOUR PASSWORD.
Your wallet will close and you will have to start it up again. This time when it opens up, you should have a new button in the bottom left. Now if you want to stake you will have to unlock your wallet. Notice the "For staking only" box that is checked by default. If you want to send a beacon for solo mining or vote, you will need to uncheck this box.


Before we continue, Let's wait until we're in sync. Depending on your internet speeds, this could take from several hours to over a day or 2. This can be sped up by using Advanced > Download Blocks, but this can still take several hours.
This is what an in-sync client should look like. Notice the green check to the right of the Receive tab. All of these icons give you information when you hover your mouse over them.
The lock
The arrow tells you if you're staking. If you aren't staking, it will tell you why you're not staking. If you are staking it will give you an estimated staking time. Staking is a very random process and this is only an estimate, not a countdown.
The connection bars tell you how many connections to the network you have.
The check tells you if you're in sync.


Now I've said "stake" about a million times so far and haven't explained it. Gridcoin is a Proof of Stake (PoS) coin.
Unlike bitcoins Proof of Work (PoW), PoS uses little system resources, so you can use those resources for scientific work. PoS works by users "Staking" with their balance. The higher the balance, the higher the chance to create, or "stake" a block. This means you need to have a positive balance in order to stake. Theoretically, you can stake with any amount over 0.0125 coins, but in practice it's recommended to have at least 2000 coins to reliably stake.
Staking is important for solo miners, because they get paid when they stake. Pool miners don't need to stake in order to get paid however. So if you want to solo mine, you'll need to buy some coins from an exchange or start in the pool first and move to solo when you have enough coins.
In addition to Research Rewards for miners, anyone who holds coins (solo miners, pool miners, and investors) gets 1.5% interest annually on top of your coins. So it can be beneficial for pool miners to stake as well.
Here is a snippet of what a research rewards transaction looks like from my personal wallet. I have a label on that address of "Payout address" as you can see here.


At this point you'll need some coins. You can use one of our faucets like this one or this one to test coin control out.
First let me explain what a UTXO is. UTXO stands for Unspent Transaction Output. Say you have an address with 0 coins in it, and someone sends you 10 coins like I've done here. Those 10 coins are added to that address in the form of a UTXO, so we have an address with one 10 coin UTXO in it.
Now we receive another 5 coins at the same address, like so. Now we have an address with one 10 coin UTXO and one 5 coin UTXO. But how do we view how our addresses are split up into different UTXOs?
Earlier we checked the "Display coin control features" box in Settings > Options > Display. Once that's checked you'll notice there's another section in the Send tab labeled "Coin Control Features". If you click the "Inputs" button, you'll get a new window. And look, there's our 2 UTXOs.
All UTXOs try to stake separately from each other, and remember that the chance a UTXO has to stake is proportional to it's size. So in this situation, my 10 coin UTXO has twice the chance to stake as my 5 coin UTXO. Now wallets, especially ones that make a lot of transactions, can get very fragmented over time. I've fragmented my wallet a little so I can show you what I'm talking about.
How do we clean this up? We can consolidate all this into one UTXO by checking all the boxes on the left and selecting OK.
Now pay attention to the fields on the top:
  • Quantity: The total amount of UTXOs we have selected.
  • Amount: The total amount of coins we have selected.
  • Fee: How much it would cost in fees to send all those UTXOs (more UTXOs = more transaction data = more fees)
  • After Fee: Amount - Fees.
  • Bytes: How large the transaction is in bytes.
  • Priority: How your client would prioritize making a transaction with this specific set of UTXOs selected had you not used coin control.
  • Low Output: If your transaction is less than 0.01 coins (I think).
  • Change: What you will get back in change.
  • custom change address: You can set the address you get your change back at, by default it will generate a new address.
So let's fill out our transaction so we end up with 1 UTXO at the end.
In "Pay To:" Just put any address in your wallet, and for the amount put what it has listed in the "After Fee" Field. Just like this.
Notice how we get no change back.
Now click "Send", we'll be prompted to enter our passphrase and we're asked if we want to pay the fee, go ahead and click "Yes".
Now if we go back to the Overview tab we get this funky icon. If you hover your mouse over it, it says "Payment to yourself", and the -0.0002 GRC is the network transaction fee.
(Ignore the first one, that was me fragmenting my wallet)
Now if we look at the Coin Control menu, we can see that we've slimmed our wallet down from 7 UTXOs to 1.
Now why would you want to use coin control?
2 Situations:
  1. UTXOs less than 0.0125 coins cannot stake. So you can combine a lot of tiny, useless UTXOs into 1 bigger one that can stake.
  2. After a UTXO stakes, it cannot stake for another 16 hours. So if you have 1 large UTXO that is big enough to stake more than once every 16 hours, you can split it into smaller UTXOs which can allow you to stake slightly more often.
  3. By default, the wallet will always generate a new address for change, which can make your wallet get very messy if you're sending lots of transactions. Keep in mind that more UTXOs = larger transactions = more fees.
Sidenote - When you stake, you will earn all research rewards owed reguardless of which UTXO staked. However, you'll earn the 1.5% interest for that UTXO. Not your whole wallet.


A fork is when the network splits into multiple chains, with part of the network on each chain. A fork can happen when 2 blocks are staked by different clients at the same time or very close to the same time, or when your client rejects a block that should have been accepted due to a bug in the code or through some other unique circumstance.
How do I know if I'm on a fork?
Generally you can spot a fork by looking at the difficulty on your Overview tab. With current network conditions, if your difficulty is below 0.1, then you're probably on a fork.
You can confirm this by comparing your blockhash with someone elses, like a block explorer.
Go to [Help > Debug Window > Console]. This is the RPC console, we can use to do a lot of things. You can type help to get a list of commands, and you can type help [command you need help with] (without the brackets) to get information on a command. We'll be using the getblockhash [block number] command.
Type getblockhash [block number] in the console, but replace [block number] with the number listed next to the "Blocks:" field on the Overview tab.
This will spit out a crazy string of characters, this is the "blockhash" of that block.
Now head over to your favorite block explorer, I'll be using gridcoinstats. Find the block that you have the hash for, use the search bar or just find it in the list of blocks.
Now compare your hash with the one gridcoinstats gives you. Does it match?
If it matches, then you're probably good to go. If it matches but you still think you're on a fork, then you can try other block explorers, such as gridcoin.network or neuralminer.io.
If it doesn't match, then you need to try to get off that fork.
How do I get off a fork?
  1. Just wait for an hour or two. 95% of the time your client is able to recover itself from a fork given a little time.
  2. Restart the client, wait a few minutes to see if it fixes itself. If it doesn't restart again and wait. Repeat about 4 or 5 times.
  3. Find where the fork started. Using the getblockhash command, go back some blocks and compare hashes with that on a block explorer so you can narrow down what the last block you and the block explorer had in common. Then use reorganize [the last block hash you had in common]. Note that reorganize takes a blockhash, not a block number.
  4. Use Advanced > Download Blocks.
  5. If none of this works, you can take a look at social media (reddit/steemit) and see what other people are saying.


Your configuration file depends on your operation system:
  • On Windows: %appdata%\GridcoinResearch\
  • On Linux: ~/.GridcoinResearch/
  • On MacOS: /Users/USERNAME/Library/Application/Support/GridcoinResearch/
And it should look like this.
If you open up your gridcoinresearch.conf, you'll see the default one it generated. Note that if you entered your email earlier, the first line will have your email on it instead of "investor". If you decided you want to solo mine but didn't enter your email when you first started the wallet, go ahead and put your email on the first line in place of "investor". If you're a pool miner, just leave it as "investor".
Next, it's recommended that you use the addnodes on the gridcoin wiki. So our gridcoinresearch.conf will look like this.
A useful line for solo miners is PrimaryCPID=[YOUR CPID]. Sometimes your wallet can pick up on the wrong CPID so it's good to have that in there if you're solo mining.


A listening node is a node that listens for blocks and transactions broadcasted from nodes and forwards them on to other nodes. For example, during the syncing process when you're getting your node running for the first time, you're downloading all the blocks from listening nodes. So running a listening node helps support the network.
Running a gridcoin listening node is simple. All you need to do is add listen=1 to your gridcoinresearch.conf and you need to forward port 32749 on your router.
If you don't know how to port forward, I'd suggest googling "How to port forward [your router manufacturer]".


Gridcoin.us Official Website
Gridcoin.science Unofficial Website
Gridcoinstats.eu Block Explorer
NeuralMiner.io Block Explorer
Gridcoinstats.eu Faucet
Gridcoin.ch Faucet
Gridcoin Wiki
Gridcoin Github
Arikado Pool
And that's all I have for now!
I plan to keep this post up-to-date with changes in the client. So if anyone has any suggestions, have clarifications they want made, or maybe I got something wrong, then please feel free to leave a comment below or PM me!
submitted by Personthingman2 to gridcoin [link] [comments]

Decred Journal – August 2018

Note: you can read this on GitHub (link), Medium (link) or old Reddit (link) to see all the links.


dcrd: Version 1.3.0 RC1 (Release Candidate 1) is out! The main features of this release are significant performance improvements, including some that benefit SPV clients. Full release notes and downloads are on GitHub.
The default minimum transaction fee rate was reduced from 0.001 to 0.0001 DCkB. Do not try to send such small fee transactions just yet, until the majority of the network upgrades.
Release process was changed to use release branches and bump version on the master branch at the beginning of a release cycle. Discussed in this chat.
The codebase is ready for the new Go 1.11 version. Migration to vgo module system is complete and the 1.4.0 release will be built using modules. The list of versioned modules and a hierarchy diagram are available here.
The testnet was reset and bumped to version 3.
Comments are welcome for the proposal to implement smart fee estimation, which is important for Lightning Network.
@matheusd recorded a code review video for new Decred developers that explains how tickets are selected for voting.
dcrwallet: Version 1.3.0 RC1 features new SPV sync mode, new ticket buyer, new APIs for Decrediton and a host of bug fixes. On the dev side, dcrwallet also migrated to the new module system.
Decrediton: Version 1.3.0 RC1 adds the new SPV sync mode that syncs roughly 5x faster. The feature is off by default while it receives more testing from experienced users. Other notable changes include a design polish and experimental Politeia integration.
Politeia: Proposal editing is being developed and has a short demo. This will allow proposal owners to edit their proposal in response to community feedback before voting begins. The challenges associated with this feature relate to updating censorship tokens and maintaining a clear history of which version comments were made on. @fernandoabolafio produced this architecture diagram which may be of interest to developers.
@degeri joined to perform security testing of Politeia and found several issues.
dcrdata: mainnet explorer upgraded to v2.1 with several new features. For users: credit/debit tx filter on address page, showing miner fees on coinbase transaction page, estimate yearly ticket rewards on main page, cool new hamburger menu and keyboard navigation. For developers: new chain parameters page, experimental Insight API support, endpoints for coin supply and block rewards, testnet3 support. Lots of minor API changes and frontend tweaks, many bug fixes and robustness improvements.
The upcoming v3.0 entered beta and is deployed on beta.dcrdata.org. Check out the new charts page. Feedback and bug reports are appreciated. Finally, the development version v3.1.0-pre is on alpha.dcrdata.org.
Android: updated to be compatible with the latest SPV code and is syncing, several performance issues are worked on. Details were posted in chat. Alpha testing has started, to participate please join #dev and ask for the APK.
iOS: backend is mostly complete, as well as the front end. Support for devices with smaller screens was improved. What works now: creating and recovering wallets, listing of transactions, receiving DCR, displaying and scanning QR codes, browsing account information, SPV connection to peers, downloading headers. Some bugs need fixing before making testable builds.
Ticket splitting: v0.6.0 beta released with improved fee calculation and multiple bug fixes.
docs: introduced new Governance section that grouped some old articles as well as the new Politeia page.
@Richard-Red created a concept repository sandbox with policy documents, to illustrate the kind of policies that could be approved and amended by Politeia proposals.
decred.org: 8 contributors added and 4 removed, including 2 advisors (discussion here).
decredmarketcap.com is a brand new website that shows the most accurate DCR market data. Clean design, mobile friendly, no javascript required.
Dev activity stats for August: 239 active PRs, 219 commits, 25k added and 11k deleted lines spread across 8 repositories. Contributions came from 2-10 developers per repository. (chart)


Hashrate: went from 54 to 76 PH/s, the low was 50 and the new all-time high is 100 PH/s. BeePool share rose to ~50% while F2Pool shrank to 30%, followed by coinmine.pl at 5% and Luxor at 3%.
Staking: 30-day average ticket price is 95.6 DCR (+3.0) as of Sep 3. During the month, ticket price fluctuated between a low of 92.2 and high of 100.5 DCR. Locked DCR represented between 3.8 and 3.9 million or 46.3-46.9% of the supply.
Nodes: there are 217 public listening and 281 normal nodes per dcred.eu. Version distribution: 2% at v1.4.0(pre) (dev builds), 5% on v1.3.0 (RC1), 62% on v1.2.0 (-5%), 22% on v1.1.2 (-2%), 6% on v1.1.0 (-1%). Almost 69% of nodes are v.1.2.0 and higher and support client filters. Data snapshot of Aug 31.


Obelisk posted 3 email updates in August. DCR1 units are reportedly shipping with 1 TH/s hashrate and will be upgraded with firmware to 1.5 TH/s. Batch 1 customers will receive compensation for missed shipment dates, but only after Batch 5 ships. Batch 2-5 customers will be receiving the updated slim design.
Innosilicon announced the new D9+ DecredMaster: 2.8 TH/s at 1,230 W priced $1,499. Specified shipping date was Aug 10-15.
FFMiner DS19 claims 3.1 TH/s for Blake256R14 at 680 W and simultaneously 1.55 TH/s for Blake2B at 410 W, the price is $1,299. Shipping Aug 20-25.
Another newly noticed miner offer is this unit that does 46 TH/s at 2,150 W at the price of $4,720. It is shipping Nov 2018 and the stats look very close to Pangolin Whatsminer DCR (which has now a page on asicminervalue).


www.d1pool.com joined the list of stakepools for a total of 16.
Australian CoinTree added DCR trading. The platform supports fiat, there are some limitations during the upgrade to a new system but also no fees in the "Early access mode". On a related note, CoinTree is working on a feature to pay household bills with cryptocurrencies it supports.
Three new OTC desks were added to exchanges page at decred.org.
Two mobile wallets integrated Decred:
Reminder: do your best to understand the security and privacy model before using any wallet software. Points to consider: who controls the seed, does the wallet talk to the nodes directly or via middlemen, is it open source or not?




Targeted advertising report for August was posted by @timhebel. Facebook appeal is pending, some Google and Twitter campaigns were paused and some updated. Read more here.
Contribution to the @decredproject Twitter account has evolved over the past few months. A #twitter_ops channel is being used on Matrix to collaboratively draft and execute project account tweets (including retweets). Anyone with an interest in contributing to the Twitter account can ask for an invitation to the channel and can start contributing content and ideas there for evaluation by the Twitter group. As a result, no minority or unilateral veto over tweets is possible. (from GitHub)


For those willing to help with the events:
BAB: Hey all, we are gearing up for conference season. I have a list of places we hope to attend but need to know who besides @joshuam and @Haon are willing to do public speaking, willing to work booths, or help out at them? You will need to be well versed on not just what is Decred, but the history of Decred etc... DM me if you are interested. (#event_planning)
The Decred project is looking for ambassadors. If you are looking for a fun cryptocurrency to get involved in send me a DM or come talk to me on Decred slack. (@marco_peereboom, longer version here)


Decred Assembly episode 21 is available. @jy-p and lead dcrwallet developer @jrick discussed SPV from Satoshi's whitepaper, how it can be improved upon and what's coming in Decred.
Decred Assembly episodes 1-21 are available in audio only format here.
New instructional articles on stakey.club: Decrediton setup, Deleting the wallet, Installing Go, Installing dcrd, dcrd as a Linux service. Available in both English and Portuguese.
Decred scored #32 in the August issue of Chinese CCID ratings. The evaluation model was explained in this interview.
Satis Group rated Decred highly in their cryptoasset valuation research report (PDF). This was featured by several large media outlets, but some did not link to or omitted Decred entirely, citing low market cap.
Featured articles:

Community Discussions

Community stats:
Comm systems news:
After another debate about chat systems more people began testing and using Matrix, leading to some gardening on that platform:
Reddit: substantive discussion about Decred cons; ecosystem fund; a thread about voter engagement, Politeia UX and trolling; idea of a social media system for Decred by @michae2xl; how profitable is the Obelisk DCR1.
Chats: cross-chain trading via LN; plans for contractor management system, lower-level decision making and contractor privacy vs transparency for stakeholders; measuring dev activity; what if the network stalls, multiple implementations of Decred for more resilience, long term vision behind those extensive tests and accurate comments in the codebase; ideas for process for policy documents, hosting them in Pi and approving with ticket voting; about SPV wallet disk size, how compact filters work; odds of a wallet fetching a wrong block in SPV; new module system in Go; security of allowing Android app backups; why PoW algo change proposal must be specified in great detail; thoughts about NIPoPoWs and SPV; prerequisites for shipping SPV by default (continued); Decred vs Dash treasury and marketing expenses, spending other people's money; why Decred should not invade a country, DAO and nation states, entangling with nation state is poor resource allocation; how winning tickets are determined and attack vectors; Politeia proposal moderation, contractor clearance, the scale of proposals and decision delegation, initial Politeia vote to approve Politeia itself; chat systems, Matrix/Slack/Discord/RocketChat/Keybase (continued); overview of Korean exchanges; no breaking changes in vgo; why project fund burn rate must keep low; asymptotic behavior of Decred and other ccs, tail emission; count of full nodes and incentives to run them; Politeia proposal translations and multilingual environment.
An unusual event was the chat about double negatives and other oddities in languages in #trading.


DCR started the month at USD 56 / BTC 0.0073 and had a two week decline. On Aug 14 the whole market took a huge drop and briefly went below USD 200 billion. Bitcoin went below USD 6,000 and top 100 cryptos lost 5-30%. The lowest point coincided with Bitcoin dominance peak at 54.5%. On that day Decred dived -17% and reached the bottom of USD 32 / BTC 0.00537. Since then it went sideways in the USD 35-45 / BTC 0.0054-0.0064 range. Around Aug 24, Huobi showed DCR trading volume above USD 5M and this coincided with a minor recovery.
@ImacallyouJawdy posted some creative analysis based on ticket data.

Relevant External

StopAndDecrypt published an extensive article "ASIC Resistance is Nothing but a Blockchain Buzzword" that is much in line with Decred's stance on ASICs.
The ongoing debates about the possible Sia fork yet again demonstrate the importance of a robust dispute resolution mechanism. Also, we are lucky to have the treasury.
Mark B Lundeberg, who found a vulnerability in atomicswap earlier, published a concept of more private peer-to-peer atomic swaps. (missed in July issue)
Medium took a cautious stance on cryptocurrencies and triggered at least one project to migrate to Ghost (that same project previously migrated away from Slack).
Regulation: Vietnam bans mining equipment imports, China halts crypto events and tightens control of crypto chat groups.
Reddit was hacked by intercepting 2FA codes sent via SMS. The announcement explains the impact. Yet another data breach suggests to think twice before sharing any data with any company and shift to more secure authentication systems.
Intel and x86 dumpsterfire keeps burning brighter. Seek more secure hardware and operating systems for your coins.
Finally, unrelated to Decred but good for a laugh: yetanotherico.com.

About This Issue

This is the 5th issue of Decred Journal. It is mirrored on GitHub, Medium and Reddit. Past issues are available here.
Most information from third parties is relayed directly from source after a minimal sanity check. The authors of Decred Journal have no ability to verify all claims. Please beware of scams and do your own research.
Feedback is appreciated: please comment on Reddit, GitHub or #writers_room on Matrix or Slack.
Contributions are welcome too. Some areas are collecting content, pre-release review or translations to other languages. Check out @Richard-Red's guide how to contribute to Decred using GitHub without writing code.
Credits (Slack names, alphabetical order): bee, Haon, jazzah, Richard-Red and thedecreddigest.
submitted by jet_user to decred [link] [comments]

I had like 3 friends ask me how to build a PC in the past week so I made this to help them.

(Reddit Edit: Help my improve the document with productive constructive comments on what I got wrong or messed up! Im only human lol
Also a lot of this is supposed to be kinda humorous. I didn't think I had to say that but, hey, its the internet.
I appreciate the positive and productive comments! )
Beginners basic guide to building your own PC as of early 2018
(EDIT: Sorry for being a MSI/Corsair Fanboy)
Heres a collection of thoughts to consider when building your own personal PC
As always Id personally use PCPartPicker.com to configure your parts and for further thoughts on compatibility.
First off building a computer is 100% based around what you plan to use the computer for.
Here are a few uses and generic ideas of what to go for. Audio Editing: Lots of small tasks that need to be completed quickly without lag. - Fast Processor( >4GHZ) - Fast RAM (MHZ) -At least 16 gigs! - Fast Storage, SSD manditorily - M.2 or PCI for best performance. - Shitty Graphics card, graphics card there only to keep the cpu from doing other tasks when working. - Can be a few generations or years old. - Many screens for lots of plug in windows to be open Video Editing: Lots of large to render and files to read. - Multi core processor the more the merrier - SSD for fast read/write of large video files. - Insane graphics card, AMD graphics cards are debatibly better but the nvidia Quadro series are specific for video rendering. Gaming: No more than 4 cores intense graphics card - 92% of games are not coded for more than 4 cores so why spend the extra money for it. - SSD for quick load screens - Nvidia cards, 10 series, the higher the number the better. Titan cards for MAXIMUM OVERDRIVE! Coding: quick processor for lots of small tasks. Ergonomic peripherials? - Dear god please dont use a mechanical keyboard so that your coworkers dont kill you. Home office: Everything can be a few gens behind so you can get the best power per dollar spent. - Sorry that Gateway doesnt exist anymore. I guess try Dell... 
Parts (Expensive Legos)
CPU (tells things to go places and outputs data) Basically three main routes to go for: Intel, AMD, or ASIC. Intel - Gaming, Data center, Hackintosh Pros: Cooler, Faster speed (GHZ), short small tasks faster Cons: $$$$, less cores AMD - Gaming, Personal Computing, Large task processing Pros: Lots of cores, better price per performance, faster processing of large tasks Cons: Hot chips, large chips?, compatibility issues with MacOS. ASIC - "Application-specific integrated circuit" Pros: Does the task that they are made to do insanely efficently, great for mining. Cons: Literally does nothing else. Holy hell these are expensive, very hot (fans will get loud) CPU Cooler (Im a big fan) Most come with an in box cooler that are ok but please buy aftermarket. In Box - the free shitty cooler that comes with the processor. Pros: Free. Cons: Ugly, makes chip run hot, hard to clean Air cooler - oldest type of cooler but new designs are highly efficent. Pros: Only cooler that has the possibility of being 100% quiet, most likely cheaper Cons: large, if cooler isnt large enough for the chips thermal output the fans will be loud. Liquid - Custom pipes are beautiful, AIO is easy to install and offers similare performance. Pros: Looks cool, great temperatures, "quiet" Cons: Water pump has possibility of being loud, possible spills Phase Change - uses the technology of refridgerators to cool the chip Pros: Can overclock until the chip breaks. (whats colder than cold? ICE COLD!) Cons: Loud (compressor noise), Large pipes, just why.... Motherboard (the convienacnce store of computer parts) Really just about what type of I/O you want. - MAKE SURE FORM FACTOR FITS YOUR CASE! (or vice versa) - Look for PCI lanes for expansion. - How many graphic cards do you have? - PCI based interfaces? - PCI SSD? - PCI DAC? - PCI WIFI? - USbs? Network? Audio? - How many lanes of RAM? - DOES IT FIT YOUR PROCESSOR!?! (really tho) - M.2? - How many sata interaces? Good Brands: MSI, ASUS, Gigabyte Bad Brands: AS(s)Rock, Dell Memory (Dory) - The more the merrier - No less than 8gb for a functional windows machine (16 gb to never have a problem) - Use all the lanes your computer has to offer! the more lanes to access the faster the data can travel! -Imagine drinking a milkshake. If the straw is wider you can drink more of the milkshake than a skinny straw. - Faster MHZ for faster data access but give minimal performance differances - Please get ram with heat spreadders unles youre building a server with high airflow. - Make sure the type (DDR3 or DDR4) of RAM matches what your processomotherboard call for. Good Brands: Corsair, G.Skill, Ballistix Storage (Grandpa that remembers everythign about how things used to be but takes forever to learn a new tasK) Speed or massive storage? slower is cheaper. Golden ratio of speed/storage/price is 250-500 gb SSD and a 1+ tb disk drive. *Max speeds listed are for a single drive not RAID* Hard Disk Drives (HDD) - Cheapest and slowest - read/write speeds of < 0.5gb/s - 7200+ RPM or GTFO - Higher Speed drives can access data faster. - Do not move while powered up. physical parts will break. - Larger Cahche = faster Read/Write Speeds Pros: Cheap, Holds massive amounts of data Cons: Slower than molasses in a frezer Reputible Brands: Seagate, WD Solid State Drives (SSD) - necessity for quick boots and fast load screens (can only be re-written to so many times) - SATA based (2.5 inch)- Read/Write speeds capped @ 6 gb/s Pros: Most economical, form factor fits with old computers, Cons: "Slow" compared to other ssd's (but stil 12 times faster than a HDD) - M.2 based - Read/Write speeds capped @ 10 gb/s Pros: Size of a sick of gum! High End but not too expensive to be out of reach. Cons: Expensive for any size over 500 gb - PCI based - Read/Write speeds capped @ 20 gb/s for PCI3, x4 Pros: HOLY BANDWIDTH BATMAN! Faster than that little creepy ghost thats always in the corner of you eye Cons: You might have to take out a loan to buy one. *takes up a x4 PCI Lane* Reputible Brands: Samsung! Corsair, Plextor, Intel, Kingston, Crucial Video Card (that one kid that has thick glasses and is really good at math) - A regular old PCI card that handles all of the video rendering and output for your computer. - ASIC PCI cards. - The PCBs and chips are patented by two main companies but the differances come from line up and varying manufacturer cooling devices. - The more memory the better -NVIDIA (Team Green) Great for gaming, has specific card series for intensive rendering. Lazy driver updates. - Gaming - 900 series - Cheap - Low performance - Can play any video game made befrore 2010 on max settings - 1000 (ten) series - Expensive (thanks bitcoin miners...) - Great for VR! - Video Rendering -Quadro Series - Gaming and Rendering - Titan X - Maxwell based chip same as 900 series cards - Titan XP - Pascal based chip same as 10 series cards -AMD (Team Red) Underdog does the same thing but slighly worse and cheaper. (except video rendering) - Gaming - RX 400 series - Cheap - Hot - RX 500 series - Cheap - Ok at VR and deacent gaming frame rates. - Not bad but not particularly great either. - Video Rendering - Fire Pro series - Gaming and Rendering - Vega series -Good luck finding one to buy lmao Case (Fancy clothing for your parts!) - Similar to human clothing you want it to do a few main things really well with compromises for each extreme. - Durability - Steel - Incredibly durable - Creates Farady cage for components - Heavy af - Magnets, just magnets.... - Rust over time - Aluminium - Light - East to bend for modding or "physical maintenance" - Less likely to rust - Huzzah for Farady cages! - Plastic - Just dont - no electrical Ground - no faraday cage - Light AF! - Breath (Airflow) - positive internal airflow! - larger fans push the same amount of air with less speed/noise - Looks - Window? - RGB - Cool Paint? - Fit all your parts - graphics card length/ clearacne - support for liquid cooling raiators? - How many spots for HDD/SSDs - Motherboard format - Cable management! Power Supply (FIGHT MILK) - Rule of thumb: BUy Powersupply that outputs 1.5 times the wattage that you need. - You can walk further than you can you can run. - The PSU can casually output 50-75% power for much longer than at 90-100% (without failure) - If you never demand enough wattage for it to get hot the fan doesnt have to turn on therefore making it quieter. - Modular means you can remove/replace the cables from the PSU. Reputible Brands: Corsair, EVGA Optical Drive (motorized cup holder) - You can download most things today so I'd suggest against it unless you really NEED to watch/write DVD's/CD's Operating System (software that makes everything work) Windows (Always Updates) - Compatible with just about everything - Easy to learn to code on! - POS inital browser - Likely to get virus's Linux (Penguins are cute) - Unique - takes less resources to run - Barebones - Incredibly personalizable! - Compatibility issues with just about everything MacOS (Linux but more annoying) - It is legal! - Great for art and your grandma that doenst know how to use computers! - User friendly - Compatibility issues with various hardware - Confusing/Limiting coding structure Peripherials (cables everywhere!) - Keyboard (higer Polling rate is better) - Mechanical (key is pressed at an exact stroke length every time - Mouse (Higher Polling rate is better) - more buttons = better? - DPI (Dots Per Inch) - In theory, if a mouse has 1600 DPI, then, if you move your mouse one inch (2.54 cm), the mouse cursor will move 1600 pixels - Higher DPI the faster your cursor is able to be moved. - Monitor - In theory the human eye cant see faster than 60 frames per second. - Keep in mind Pixel ratio! - 4k screen that is 22inches will have more pixels in a square inch than a 4k screen that is 28 inches. - Interface? - DVI (Analog) - thumbscrews..... - can do two monitors with one port! - support for 4k - VGA (Analog) - thumbscrews... - max resolution is 1440p - Display Port (digital) - nice button clip - supports 4k - HDMI (Digital) - 1.2 or higer supports 4k - DAC/Speakers/Headphones - Dont even get me started - Microphone - Dont get me started PT.2 Other (other) - UPS (uninterruptible power supply) Just a battery that allows your computer to have some time if the power ever goes out so that you have time to save your work. - Cable Organization materials! - Zipties - velcro - LED LIGHTING! - Manditory - Extra/Better fans - More pressure, less woosh - IFIXIT Pro Tech Toolkit - becasue who buys just one torx wrench. - Cute kitten mousepad - Yes, it has to be a cat. Dont argue 
This is a very general entry into building computers and what you should buy/look for. If you have any questions/comments send me an e-mail!
-Zac Holley-
submitted by Zac_Attack13 to pcmasterrace [link] [comments]

Zoin Basics: A Beginner’s Guide to Obtaining Zoin

Welcome to Zoin! We want to start by thanking you for joining our amazing community. Zoin is a community-governed decentralized digital currency with privacy features (based on the Zerocoin protocol) and is developed by a diverse team from all around the world. There is no pre-mine and no founder’s reward for Zoin; additionally, it is strictly CPU-minable (see mining section below). Together, these features ensure fairness and transparency to everyone interested in obtaining Zoin. Through this guide you will learn about the current methods of acquiring Zoin for yourself.

How to Earn / Buy Zoin

Right now, there are two ways you can obtain Zoin. You can either use the Bitcoin/Zoin trading pair on Cryptopia exchange or you can mine for Zoin using your own hardware.

Method 1: Trading Zoin on Cryptopia

To start, the easiest way to buy a cryptocurrency such as Ethereum or Litecoin is through Coinbase, where you can buy up to $500 worth of Litecoins (for example) using a credit card before you need to verify your identity. Coinbase accepts buyers from 33 countries across the world. A simple guide from Coinbase on buying Litecoin (or Ethereum) with your bank account / credit card is all you need to get started.
Once you have purchased either Litecoin or Ethereum (or another altcoin) you may login to Cryptopia exchange, after you’ve created an account. You must create a deposit address for the same coin that you previously bought on Coinbase or another exchange by clicking deposit under your account, and then typing the name of the coin you wish to deposit. This will generate an address for your Cryptopia trading wallet to receive coins. You can either copy / paste the address (never type it yourself without verifying it), or scan the QR code if you are sending from a mobile wallet.
Once you make a deposit to your Cryptopia wallet address you must wait for several confirmations before your funds are trade-able on Cryptopia. This usually takes around 30 minutes.
When the deposit is confirmed you may go to the Exchange Market section of Cryptopia and search for the coin you just deposited. Once you are there, create a sell order and wait for someone to buy it, or choose a buy order for the coin to trade it for Bitcoin right away. Since you just purchased your cryptocurrency, the price probably won’t be very different than when you bought it, but this depends heavily on the current state of the market. Look up how much the current buy orders are (in your country’s currency), if it is close to the price you bought it at then you can sell at that price. Remember, a sell order may not be filled right away, but choosing someone’s buy order will sell it to them instantly.
If you have successfully traded your altcoin for Bitcoin on Cryptopia, you may now use your Bitcoin to buy Zoin. You can buy Zoin through a buy order of your own (bid) or a sell order from someone else; again, this is entirely up to you and how you anticipate the market / price of coins.
Congratulations, you have successfully bought your first Zoin!
The next step is to transfer the Zoin you bought to your own personal Zoin wallet. To do this, download the wallet on your preferred platform and after installing and running the wallet for the first time, wait for the blockchain to fully sync.
  1. Close your wallet (if it’s open).
  2. Delete the following folders from %appdata% on Windows or Library/Application Support/Zoin on Mac: Blocks, Chainstate and the file peers.dat
  3. Download the latest blockchain file, extract using 7Zip or your preferred program.
  4. Paste the newly downloaded folders: Block, Chainstate and file peers.dat in ZOIN folder under %appdata% on Windows or Library/Application Support/Zoin on Mac
  5. Open the wallet and wait for it to synchronize. This should take less time than downloading the entire blockchain and syncing from scratch. The process should take around 30 minutes.
Go to the Receive tab and click on your address, then choose Copy Address. Paste that address on the Cryptopia withdraw page for Zoin and confirm that you want to withdraw. In a few minutes, your Zoin will show up in your wallet (it will be confirmed after 6 confirmations).
After your wallet is up to date and you’ve added some of your coins to it, you will want to make it safe in case something happens.
The first thing you want to do is to encrypt it. You can do this by clicking on Settings Encrypt Wallet
You should type in a passphrase that is safe and that you will remember, confirm this passphrase and proceed to encrypt your wallet.
Please be advised, once you set your passphrase you can’t forget it or all your funds will be lost!
Right after your wallet has been encrypted, you should make a backup of it. Click on File Backup Wallet and save the wallet as a wallet.dat file
If you want to open your wallet on another computer you may save the wallet file onto a flash drive or other backup device / method you may already have. Remember that if you encrypted your wallet before doing this backup you must know the passphrase in order to access your wallet.
Another way of recovering your wallet is by finding the private key for the wallet. This can be done in the wallet debug terminal (advanced). For accessing your wallet private key, you must do the following procedure:
If your wallet is encrypted: Click Help Debug Window Console (tab). In the console window, use the command walletpassphrase first:
walletpassphrase "YourPassphrase" 60 
Where "YourPassphrase" is the passphrase you used when you encrypted your wallet and 60 is the amount of time you want to unencrypt your wallet for (in seconds).
Next, use the dumpprivkey command in the following form:
dumpprivkey "wallet address" 
Replace "wallet address" with your own wallet address.
After entering these commands, you will receive your private key.
You may now write down and save this private key.

Method 2: Mining Zoin

The second way of obtaining Zoin is to earn it by mining, using your own hardware and a mining pool server (we recommend the official pool). Mining Zoin is possible with any modern computer as long as it has a CPU.
To start mining you need to have an account in a “pool”; this is a place where several computers (also known as workers) connect together to mine the blockchain. As we mine the blockchain, we find blocks which contain a reward (currently 12.5 Zoin) which is shared by the number of total miners depending on each person’s mining hashrate. The better your hardware is, the more Zoin you will receive from mining.
To get started, visit our official pool and create your mining account.
You will need to set up a worker. This is your mining device which should be assigned a name and password in order for the network to distinguish your mining rig from others. To do this, visit the Workers page.
The Username must be set for as many workers or computers you want to set up. For example, if the username you chose when signing up to our pool was “john123” and you set your first computer name to worker1. Then your username and worker will be: “john123.worker1”. If you set a second worker as worker2, your second worker name will be “john123.worker2” and so on. The password will be whatever you choose under the password that box, the password can be the same for all the workers.
Mining on Windows:
Now that your workers are set, you can go ahead and download mining software, which you can get from the Resources page of the official pool.
Once you have the mining software, open the compressed folder by extracting its contents and create a batch (.bat) file which will contain all the info necessary to mine Zoin into your account. To do this, open a text editor such as Notepad and save the file as .bat instead of .txt
This batch file must contain just one line:
cpuminer-aes-avx2.exe -a lyra2zoin -o stratum+tcp://zoin.netabuse.net:3000 -u username.workername -p workerpassword 
cpuminer-aes-avx2.exe is the .exe file that you want to use, it depends on your CPU.
Lyra2zoin is the algorithm used by Zoin, that should remain the same.
stratum+tcp://zoin.netabuse.net:3000 is the link to the official pool.
username.workername should be the username you set. (Example: john123.worker1)
workerpassword is the password you set for each worker.
Once you set this batch file, you can run it by double-clicking on it.
Note: Make sure that your Firewall / AV program isn’t blocking cpuminer-aes-avx2.exe or the .bat file in order for it to run successfully.
Mining on Linux (Advanced):
Type the following into the terminal one line at a time:
sudo chown -R $USER: $HOME 
sudo apt-get update 
sudo apt-get install automake autoconf pkg-config libcurl4-openssl-dev libjansson-dev libssl-dev libgmp-dev -y 
sudo apt-get install autotools-dev automake make libcurl4-openssl-dev g++ libssl-dev libgmp3-dev -y 
sudo apt-get install build-essential screen automake m4 openssl libssl-dev git libjson0 libjson0-dev libcurl4- openssl-dev autoconf python-software-properties -y 
sudo git clone https://github.com/JayDDee/cpuminer-opt 
cd cpuminer-opt 
./cpuminer -a lyra2zoin -o stratum+tcp://zoin.netabuse.net:3000 -u USERNAME.WORKERNAME -p x -t x 
Replace USERNAME.WORKERNAME with your unique pool username and workername
Mining on Mac OS:
  1. Download and install Docker Community Edition
  2. Visit the Zoin Official Pool and create your mining account
  3. Setup a Worker
  4. Edit the line below to match your pool configuration:
docker run hmage/cpuminer-opt -a lyra2zoin -o stratum+tcp://zoin.netabuse.net:3000 -u USERNAME.WORKERNAME -p x 
hmage/cpuminer-opt is the miner that will be used by docker.
Lyra2zoin is the algorithm used by Zoin, that should remain the same.
stratum+tcp://zoin.netabuse.net:3000 is the link to the official pool.
USERNAME.WORKERNAME should be your unique username and workname (Example: john123.worker1)
If Docker up and running, open Terminal on your Mac (Command + Spacebar and type "Terminal") and paste the line you created. Docker will proceed to download the necessary programs and start mining right away. If you can see the Accepted green message you are mining and you can check all of the mining stats and your earnings from the pool on the main page.
Happy mining!
submitted by Bluish91 to zoinofficial [link] [comments]

(Updated) [Staking] Reddcoin Core client GUI wallet on a Raspberry Pi Model 3B


This thread is an update to my first Reddcoin staking tutorial that was written 7 months ago.
The reason for the update
My Reddcoin Core software crashed and became unusable. My Raspberry Pi 3B would lag and freeze, I couldn't stake anymore.
Instead of just redoing everything the same way, I wanted to see if I could improve on 3 points:
The updates
If you would like to tip me
Writing a tutorial like this takes time and effort; tips are appreciated. My Reddcoin address: RqvdnNX5MTam855Y2Vudv7yVgtXdcYaQAW.






This video shows how long it takes to start Reddcoin Core.   TL;DR:


Backup your wallet to prevent losing the RDDs in your wallet! There are two methods to backup, do both. Make new backups if you create a new receiving address!
Boot with only 1 USB drive plugged in:
Make sure only the USB drive (with the swap partition and data partition) is plugged in when you boot up your Raspberry Pi. This to make sure the swap partition (/dev/sda1) is recognized correctly.   If you boot up with multiple USB drives, Lubuntu might see the USB drive with the swap partition as the second drive (instead of the first drive), and ignore the 2 GB swap partition. If this happens, starting Reddcoin can render the Raspberry Pi unresponsive.
Connection issues If you have issues syncing the blockchain because you have 0 network connections, please follow the instructions in this thread.
Start Reddcoin Core easier
Run a shell script (.sh file), so you can start Reddcoin just by double clicking on an icon on your Desktop.
Minimization options
Adjust minimization options, so you can safely press on the X button (the close/exit button on the upper right corner).
RealVNC VNC Viewer (client) and VNC Connect (server): To remote connect to the Raspberry Pi, I use VNC Viewer ad VNC Connect from RealVNC.
Chromium as browser: The updates break Firefox, the browser crashes when you try to run it. Install another browser, Chromium, to solve this issue.
Updates / Upgrades
If Software Updater shows up and tells you that there is updated software available, do not install the updates using Software Updater. Use LXTerminal to update Lubuntu.  


Credits in previous tutorial:
submitted by Yavuz_Selim to reddCoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Mining on Ubuntu 18.10 - Bitcoin Mining Software ... How to start Bitcoin mining for beginners (SUPER EASY ... How to mining btc with kali linux - YouTube Bitcoin Mining In 5 Simple Steps WHAT IS BITCOIN MINING SOFTWARE?

1. CGMiner [macOS/Windows/Linux] One of the most popular and best-rated software for mining Bitcoin is CGMiner. It’s available on Windows, macOS, and Linux, making it an extremely versatile option. Bitcoin is a digital currency based on Blockchain technology with sha256 Algorithm and works on Proof of Work. The blocks are generated by POW technology. 1. Go to https://blockchain.info/wallet/ 2… Bitcoin Mining Revenue on the Decline Since Block Reward Halving. May 19, 2020 . Bitcoin Miners Are Leaving the Network En-Masse After “Brutal” Halving. May 14, 2020. 20 Comments . Lily 3 years ago Reply. Hi Zach! I am the co-founder of PiMP, the Portable instant Mining Platform. For the last 6 years we have made a Linux mining OS with all the packages, drivers and miners pre-installed ... Bitcoin mining is done by specialized computers. The role of miners is to secure the network and to process every Bitcoin transaction. Miners achieve this by solving a computational problem which allows them to chain together blocks of transactions (hence Bitcoin’s famous “blockchain”).. For this service, miners are rewarded with newly-created Bitcoins and transaction fees. Mining Bitcoin with your CPU. I really wanted to try mining and I didn’t care if it would cost me more than I would make in Bitcoin, so I looked around and stumbled across a bunch of different programs for mining. The one I found for using your CPU was funnily enough one named cpuminer. Now on it’s own it’s not going to do a lot, but actually we’ll have to hook it up to a mining pool ...

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Bitcoin Mining on Ubuntu 18.10 - Bitcoin Mining Software ...

How To Mine Bitcoin On PC, Mac, Or Linux - Duration: 21:41. Crypto Miner Tips 348 views. 21:41 . How Much Can You Make Mining Bitcoin With 6X 1080 Ti Beginners Guide - Duration: 19:20. How Much ... Get an additional $10 in Bitcoins from Coinbase when purchasing through my referral link http://fredyen.com/get/Bitcoins Raspberry Pi: http://amzn.to/2l6yrW7... In this video I show you how to start mining Bitcoins with CGMiner and an account at your favorite miningpool. Get CGMiner at: https://bitcointalk.org/index.... insta - csp_96 #csp #linuxforce # apt-get update # apt-get install libcurl4-openssl-dev git build-essential # apt-get install autotools-dev autoconf libcurl3... In this episode of Crypto Miner Tips, we go over how to get started Bitcoin Mining with a PC. However, the mining software mentioned in this tutorial can be ...