"Do you need a Blockchain?" - this paper is fantastic, everyone should read this before evaluating a coin and if requires a block chain to solve a solution the coin is promising to solve. (136 points, 41 comments)
Do any of you foresee a crypto being widely adopted as a general purpose payment coin? nano, btc, btccash etc (take your pick). I think it won't happen for reasons in this post. What do you think? (59 points, 54 comments)
Noticed the huge rise of EOS lately what does it have over NEO and ethereum and to a lesser extent Cardano? I tried researching it, but wasn't sold. (54 points, 55 comments)
Hard Problems in Cryptocurrency: Five Years Later ~Vitalik (46 points, 1 comment)
I had a Q&A with Bruno head architect / CEO of oyster, thought you guys might like it. (45 points, 2 comments)
A good article that explains in simple terms how Eth2 works, how it will be rolled out and migrated from eth1 (42 points, 4 comments)
DAI the stablecoin can now be transferred GAS free (article explaining how it works via new MCD DAI contract). This holds alot of promise for the so called "Web3" (40 points, 8 comments)
Veriblock is consuming 27% of bitcoins block space - what does this mean for bitcoins future? (39 points, 16 comments)
Vitalik: Alternative proposal for early eth1 <-> eth2 merge (38 points, 3 comments)
Is launching a PoW permissionless blockchain still possible today? or would it be too susceptible to a 51% attack? (37 points, 37 comments)
Technical comparison of LIGHTNING vs TANGLE vs HASHGRAPH vs NANO (133 points, 37 comments)
Addressing Nano's weaknesses (bandwidth usage and disk IO). Nano voting traffic to be reduced by 99.9% by implementing vote by hash, lazy bootstrapping, and reduced vote rebroadcasting (x-post CryptoCurrency) (78 points, 8 comments)
Emergent centralization due to economies of scale (PoW vs DPoS) – Colin LeMahieu (52 points, 37 comments)
Nano community member developing a distributed "mining" service to pay people to do PoW for third-parties (e.g. exchanges, light wallet services, etc) (32 points, 20 comments)
What do you think about OpenCAP, the cryptocurrency alias protocol that mirrors traditional email addresses? (15 points, 12 comments)
Bitcoin would be a calamity, not an economy (11 points, 52 comments)
Part 5. I'm writing a series about blockchain tech and possible future security risks. This is the fifth part of the series talking about an advanced vulnerability of BTC. (43 points, 43 comments)
I'm writing a series about blockchain tech and possible future security risks. This is the third part of the series introducing Quantum resistant blockchains. (36 points, 4 comments)
Part 4B. I’m writing a series about blockchain tech and possible future security risks. This is the fourth part of the series explaining the special quality of going quantum resistant from genesis block. (25 points, 21 comments)
Part 6. (Last part) I'm writing a series about blockchain tech and possible future security risks. Failing shortcuts in an attempt to accomplish Quantum Resistance (24 points, 38 comments)
I'm writing a series about blockchain tech and possible future security risks. This is the first part of the series introducing the basic concept of blockchain and what makes it reliable. (23 points, 10 comments)
I'm writing a series about blockchain tech and possible future security risks. This is the fourth part of the series explaining the special quality of going quantum resistant from genesis block. (7 points, 1 comment)
Part 2. I'm writing a series about blockchain tech and possible future security risks. This is the second part of the series: An accessible description of hashing and signature schemes. (5 points, 0 comments)
Everytime I try to investigate the technology behind Cardano(Ada), I come across the words "scientific" and "peer-reviewed" over and over but almost no actual details. Can someone fill how this coin actually works and where they are in development? (126 points, 49 comments)
"Do you need a Blockchain?" - this paper is fantastic, everyone should read this before evaluating a coin and if requires a block chain to solve a solution the coin is promising to solve. by Neophyte- (136 points, 41 comments)
Technical comparison of LIGHTNING vs TANGLE vs HASHGRAPH vs NANO by Qwahzi (133 points, 37 comments)
Everytime I try to investigate the technology behind Cardano(Ada), I come across the words "scientific" and "peer-reviewed" over and over but almost no actual details. Can someone fill how this coin actually works and where they are in development? by RufusTheFirefly (126 points, 49 comments)
160 points: holomntn's comment in ELI5: Why did it take so long for blockchain technology to be created?
121 points: KnifeOfPi2's comment in How do we change the culture around cryptocurrency?
105 points: theglitteringone's comment in Outside of currency and voting, blockchain is awful and shouldnt be used. Can anyone explain where blockchain is worth the cost?
102 points: benthecarman's comment in If crypto now is like 'the Internet' of the past, where are we?
96 points: pegasuspect93's comment in If crypto now is like 'the Internet' of the past, where are we?
95 points: bannercoin's comment in Realistically, why would anybody expect the startup crypto platforms to beat out the corporate giants who are developing their own Blockchain as a Service (BaaS) solutions? Ex. IBM, SAP, JP Morgan...
83 points: AlexCoventry's comment in Ethereum private key with all zeroes leads to an account with 5000$ on it
82 points: deleted's comment in Is blockchain really useful ?
spam email from me to me, containing a valid password - have i been hacked?
below is a spam email that i received from a purported hacker. there are two things about the message that concern me: 1) it appears that the message has been sent from my own email account, to my own email account. i'm no security expert and i'm not able to tell whether the sender actually hacked my email account, or whether he just somehow spoofed the sender's address to look like my own. 2) the sender states that he has one of my passwords - "abcd1234" - (that's not the real password, i changed it for purposes of posting here) - and this is in fact a password that i have used. have i been hacked? i have changed all passwords related to my email account, should i take further action? i checked my email address on haveibeenpwned.com and it says:
Oh no — pwned! Pwned on 3 breached sites and found no pastes (subscribe to search sensitive breaches)
what does that mean? here is the message. i have attempted to anonymize my own data using find-and-replace. please let me know if i inadvertently left anything in there that could point to my real identity.
Return-Path: Delivered-To: [email protected] Received: from com-bemdirector002.myisp.com ([xx.xxx.xx.xxx]) by com-bemback009.myisp.com (Dovecot) with LMTP id aw6pCExKKFxCGQAAfCnMEQ for ; Sun, 30 Dec 2018 05:32:12 +0100 Received: from com-bemdirector002.myisp.com ([xx.xxx.xx.xxx]) by com-bemdirector002.myisp.com (Dovecot) with LMTP id oe2lCExKKFz8EAAAQ2+l/g ; Sun, 30 Dec 2018 05:32:12 +0100 Received: from com-basicem-smtp004.srv.myisp2-ops.net ([yyy.yyy.yy.yyy] helo=smtp04.myisp.com) by com-bemdirector002.myisp.com with esmtp (Exim 4.89) (envelope-from ) id 1gdSlo-000BBX-1F for [email protected]; Sun, 30 Dec 2018 05:32:12 +0100 Received: from gateway.myisp.com (gateway.myisp.com [zzz.zzz.zz.zzz]) by smtp04.myisp.com (Postfix) with ESMTP id 00B1BA02BA5 for ; Sun, 30 Dec 2018 05:32:12 +0100 (CET) Received: from localhost (localhost [127.0.0.1]) by gateway.myisp.com (Postfix) with ESMTP id 8DB8233B20 for ; Sun, 30 Dec 2018 05:32:11 +0100 (CET) X-Virus-Scanned: amavisd-new at myisp.com Received: from gateway.myisp.com ([127.0.0.1]) by localhost (gateway.myisp.com [127.0.0.1]) (amavisd-new, port 10025) with ESMTP id AMkKGe4nQkDW for ; Sun, 30 Dec 2018 05:32:11 +0100 (CET) Received: from mx.myisp.com (mx.myisp.com [aaa.aaa.aa.aaa]) by gateway.myisp.com (Postfix) with ESMTP id 5713A33B1E for ; Sun, 30 Dec 2018 05:32:11 +0100 (CET) Received-SPF: None (mailfrom) identity=mailfrom; client-ip=bbb.bbb.bb.bbb; helo=slot0.sajkhwerjh.ga; [email protected]; receiver= X-Greylist: delayed 00:48:04 by myisp2 greylisting Received: from slot0.sajkhwerjh.ga (slot0.sajkhwerjh.ga [bbb.bbb.bb.bbb]) (using TLSv1.2 with cipher ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384 (256/256 bits)) (No client certificate requested) by mx.myisp.com (Postfix) with ESMTPS id 914692A018A for ; Sun, 30 Dec 2018 05:32:11 +0100 (CET) MIME-Version: 1.0 From: "[email protected]" To: [email protected] Date: 29 Dec 2018 19:34:47 -0800 Subject: Your email was hacked! Content-Type: text/html; charset=us-ascii Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Message-ID: <[email protected]> X-Mail-From: [email protected] Hey,
As you can tell from the subject your e-mail account = was compromised. You can also see i have mailed you this e-mail f= rom your own e-mail account. Read this FULL message and i will le= t you know what action to take. Some time ago you checked out = some adult web sites. On one of those web sites i set up a backdo= or and your system was infected by it. For example, i know one of= the passwords you used was "abcd1234". I've got access to all yo= ur contacts, your e-mail accounts, your data, and so on. It do= esn't matter how many times you alter your online passwords, i wi= ll continually have access to your device using my backdoor. At t= imes i also triggered your cam and recorded some pleasant video c= lips of you while you "satisfied yourself" viewing adult content.= I have additionally downloaded all the files from your device an= d stored all your contacts. I might deliver all the nasty vide= o i have to each of your contacts and e-mail connections but i am= going to offer you a way out so keep on reading and discover how= to prevent this.
During these holidays I suppose you do n= ot want me to deliver the "very exposing" video i have of you to = all of your contacts, friends and family. Imagine the disgrace! For my secrecy i want you to transfer $725 in BITCOINS to m= y address: 18GdbHkpczFqhRReSWASwTcimF3DTftZXX (copy/paste this, i= t is case sensitive) If you don't know how to utilize BITCOINS= , browse google, it is very simple and you can buy them on loads = of sites utilizing your debit or credit card.
When you ope= ned this e-mail my system triggered a timer, from now on you have= 8 hours to make this transaction. My system will monitor the BIT= COIN address i gave you for any transactions. If it does arrive i= n time all the data i have on you will be removed, the backdoor o= n your system will kill itself and you will never hear from me ag= ain. If the transaction does NOT arrive in time my system will in= stantly deliver the "exposing" clips i have of you to ALL your co= ntacts, friends and family. Moreover, your system will be locked = up and you will never have the ability to use it again, even if y= ou disconnect it from the internet.
Don't take this person= ally, i live in a nation where it is extremely tough to feed my f= amily, that's precisely why i do this. I did not target you, you = visited the wrong web site at the wrong time.
Despite what Core supporters may claim, bitcoin *has* hard-forked before (screenshot of what the hard-fork looks like included)
Many high-profile Core supporters have disingenuously claimed that bitcoin has never hard-forked before. They do this by twisting the definition of "hard-fork" around to suit their agenda. The fact of the matter is, if you run bitcoin version 0.7.2 or earlier with default configuration settings, you will not sync with the present-day blockchain. This is, by definition, a hard-fork: old nodes are incompatible, and must be upgraded in order to remain on the main chain. Bitcoin's hard-fork occurred in the wake of the March 2013 event, in which the blockchain split due to non-deterministic behavior in older clients. I will put aside whether or not the events in March 2013 were a hard-fork or just a bug, because a measurable hard-fork event occurred a few months later after all nodes were required to upgrade. Indeed, even Core's post-mortem states "On 16 August, 2013 block 252,451 (0x0000000000000024b58eeb1134432f00497a6a860412996e7a260f47126eed07) was accepted by the main network, forking unpatched nodes off the network." When I say this hard-fork is "measurable", I mean that anyone can test for themselves to see that old versions of the bitcoin software are not compatible with the current blockchain. In order to test it yourself, you can follow these steps:
Shut down your up-to-date full node software, and restart it with the following command: bitcoin-qt -bind=127.0.0.1 -connect. (The -bind option allows local nodes to connect to it. The empty -connect option ensures it doesn't connect to any public nodes, which is important because we need to keep the mempool empty in order to prevent the old node software getting hung-up trying process present-day transactions).
Download version 0.7.2 of Bitcoin Core, and run it with the following command: bitcoin-qt -datadir=/path/to/an/empty/directory -connect=127.0.0.1. (This will connect to your up-to-date local full node, and start processing the blockchain. Make sure your datadir path has at least 15 gigs free).
Now, you must wait (several hours at least). Once your 0.7.2 node reaches block height 252,450, you will see the result of the hard-fork yourself. The outdated node software will refuse to process the following block, and the debug.log file will start printing InvalidChainFound messages. Here is a screenshot of what my 0.7.2 node looked like when it was hard-forked off the main chain: https://i.imgur.com/qIxAAjY.png I encourage you to replicate this process yourself if you remain skeptical. I hope this puts to rest once and for all the myth that bitcoin has never hard-forked before. The fact of the matter is, bitcoin has hard-forked before: with only a few months of preparation, all nodes on the network were able to successfully upgrade (or apply backports or special config), and the main chain hard-forked without any problems.
What benefits does Nexus bring to the blockchain space?
How does Nexus secure the network and reach consensus?
What is quantum resistance and how does Nexus implement this?
What is Nexus’ Unified Time protocol?
Why does Nexus need its own satellite network?
The Nexus Currency:
How can I get Nexus?
How much does a transaction cost?
How fast does Nexus transfer?
Did Nexus hold an ICO? How is Nexus funded?
Is there a cap on the number of Nexus in existence?
What is the difference between the Oracle wallet and the LLD wallet?
How do I change from Oracle to the LLD wallet?
How do I install the Nexus Wallet?
Types of Mining or Minting:
Can I mine Nexus?
How do I mine Nexus?
How do I stake Nexus?
I am staking with my Nexus balance. What are trust weight, block weight and stake weight?
1. What is Nexus (NXS)? Nexus is a digital currency, distributed framework, and peer-to-peer network. Nexus further improves upon the blockchain protocol by focusing on the following core technological principles:
Nexus will combine our in-development quantum-resistant 3D blockchain software with cutting edge communication satellites to deliver a free, distributed, financial and data solution. Through our planned satellite and ground-based mesh networks, Nexus will provide uncensored internet access whilst bringing the benefits of distributed database systems to the world. For a short video introduction to Nexus Earth, please visit this link
2. What benefits does Nexus bring to the blockchain space? As Nexus has been developed, an incredible amount of time has been put into identifying and solving several key limitations:
Quantum computing vulnerability
Centralized network access
Slow difficulty adjustment
Slow block times
Block reward halving
Nexus is also developing a framework called the Lower Level Library. This LLL will incorporate the following improvements:
LLC (Lower Level Cryptography): This is a suite of cutting edge cryptographic methods including hashing, asymmetric encryption, digital signatures, and symmetric encryption algorithms
LLP (Lower Level Protocol): This is a template protocol to allow any protocol to be created with ease without the need for repeated network programming.
LLD (Lower Level Database): This is a set of templates for creating high efficiency database systems. This high efficiency can be used to power large websites, which are currently built with database software that is not designed to scale.
For information about more additions to the Lower Level Library, please visit here
3. How does Nexus secure the network and reach consensus? Nexus is unique amongst blockchain technology in that Nexus uses 3 channels to secure the network against attack. Whereas Bitcoin uses only Proof-of-Work to secure the network, Nexus combines a prime number channel, a hashing channel and a Proof-of-Stake channel. Where Bitcoin has a difficulty adjustment interval measured in weeks, Nexus can respond to increased hashrate in the space of 1 block and each channel scales independently of the other two channels. This stabilizes the block times at ~50 seconds and ensures no single channel can monopolize block production. This means that a 51% attack is much more difficult to launch because an attacker would need to control all 3 channels. Every 60 minutes, the Nexus protocol automatically creates a checkpoint. This prevents blocks from being created or modified dated prior to this checkpoint, thus protecting the chain from malicious attempts to introduce an alternate blockchain.
4. What is quantum resistance and how does Nexus implement it? To understand what quantum resistance is and why it is important, you need to understand how quantum computing works and why it’s a threat to blockchain technology. Classical computing uses an array of transistors. These transistors form the heart of your computer (the CPU). Each transistor is capable of being either on or off, and these states are used to represent the numerical values 1 and 0. Binary digits’ (bits) number of states depends on the number of transistors available, according to the formula 2n, where n is the number of transistors. Classical computers can only be in one of these states at any one time, so the speed of your computer is limited to how fast it can change states. Quantum computers utilize quantum bits, “qubits,” which are represented by the quantum state of electrons or photons. These particles are placed into a state called superposition, which allows the qubit to assume a value of 1 or 0 simultaneously. Superposition permits a quantum computer to process a higher number of data possibilities than a classical computer. Qubits can also become entangled. Entanglement makes a qubit dependant on the state of another, enabling quantum computing to calculate complex problems, extremely quickly. One such problem is the Discrete Logarithm Problem which elliptic curve cryptography relies on for security. Quantum computers can use Shor’s algorithm to reverse a key in polynomial time (which is really really really fast). This means that public keys become vulnerable to quantum attack, since quantum computers are capable of being billions of times faster at certain calculations. One way to increase quantum resistance is to require more qubits (and more time) by using larger private keys: Bitcoin Private Key (256 bit) 5Kb8kLf9zgWQnogidDA76MzPL6TsZZY36hWXMssSzNydYXYB9KF Nexus Private Key (571 bit) 6Wuiv513R18o5cRpwNSCfT7xs9tniHHN5Lb3AMs58vkVxsQdL4atHTF Vt5TNT9himnCMmnbjbCPxgxhSTDE5iAzCZ3LhJFm7L9rCFroYoqz Bitcoin addresses are created by hashing the public key, so it is not possible to decrypt the public key from the address; however, once you send funds from that address, the public key is published on the blockchain rendering that address vulnerable to attack. This means that your money has higher chances of being stolen. Nexus eliminates these vulnerabilities through an innovation called signature chains. Signature chains will enable access to an account using a username, password and PIN. When you create a transaction on the network, you claim ownership of your signature chain by revealing the public key of the NextHash (the hash of your public key) and producing a signature from the one time use private key. Your wallet then creates a new private/public keypair, generates a new NextHash, including the corresponding contract. This contract can be a receive address, a debit, a vote, or any other type of rule that is written in the contract code. This keeps the public key obscured until the next transaction, and by divorcing the address from the public key, it is unnecessary to change addresses in order to change public keys. Changing your password or PIN code becomes a case of proving ownership of your signature chain and broadcasting a new transaction with a new NextHash for your new password and/or PIN. This provides the ability to login to your account via the signature chain, which becomes your personal chain within the 3D chain, enabling the network to prove and disprove trust, and improving ease of use without sacrificing security. The next challenge with quantum computers is that Grover’s algorithm reduces the security of one-way hash function by a factor of two. Because of this, Nexus incorporates two new hash functions, Skein and Keccak, which were designed in 2008 as part of a contest to create a new SHA3 standard. Keccak narrowly defeated Skein to win the contest, so to maximize their potential Nexus combines these algorithms. Skein and Keccak utilize permutation to rotate and mix the information in the hash. To maintain a respective 256/512 bit quantum resistance, Nexus uses up to 1024 bits in its proof-of-work, and 512 bits for transactions.
5. What is the Unified Time protocol? All blockchains use time-stamping mechanisms, so it is important that all nodes operate using the same clock. Bitcoin allows for up to 2 hours’ discrepancy between nodes, which provides a window of opportunity for the blockchain to be manipulated by time-related attack vectors. Nexus eliminates this vulnerability by implementing a time synchronization protocol termed Unified Time. Unified Time also enhances transaction processing and will form an integral part of the 3D chain scaling solution. The Unified Time protocol facilitates a peer-to-peer timing system that keeps all clocks on the network synchronized to within a second. This is seeded by selected nodes with timestamps derived from the UNIX standard; that is, the number of seconds since January 1st, 1970 00:00 UTC. Every minute, the seed nodes report their current time, and a moving average is used to calculate the base time. Any node which sends back a timestamp outside a given tolerance is rejected. It is important to note that the Nexus network is fully synchronized even if an individual wallet displays something different from the local time.
6. Why does Nexus need its own satellite network? One of the key limitations of a purely electronic monetary system is that it requires a connection to the rest of the network to verify transactions. Existing network infrastructure only services a fraction of the world’s population. Nexus, in conjunction with Vector Space Systems, is designing communication satellites, or cubesats, to be launched into Low Earth Orbit in 2019. Primarily, the cubesat mesh network will exist to give Nexus worldwide coverage, but Nexus will also utilize its orbital and ground mesh networks to provide free and uncensored internet access to the world.
The Nexus Currency (NXS):
1. How can I get Nexus? There are two ways you can obtain Nexus. You can either buy Nexus from an exchange, or you can run a miner and be rewarded for finding a block. If you wish to mine Nexus, please follow our guide found below. Currently, Nexus is available on the following exchanges:
Bittrex (99% of trade volume)
Upbit (South Korea)
Nexus is actively reaching out to other exchanges to continue to be listed on cutting edge new financial technologies..
2. How much does a transaction cost? Under Nexus, the fee structure for making a transaction depends on the size of your transaction. A default fee of 0.01 NXS will cover most transactions, and users have the option to pay higher fees to ensure their transactions are processed quickly. When the 3D chain is complete and the initial 10-year distribution period finishes, Nexus will absorb these fees through inflation, enabling free transactions.
3. How fast does Nexus transfer? Nexus reaches consensus approximately every ~ 50 seconds. This is an average time, and will in some circumstances be faster or slower. NXS currency which you receive is available for use after just 6 confirmations. A confirmation is proof from a node that the transaction has been included in a block. The number of confirmations in this transaction is the number that states how many blocks it has been since the transaction is included. The more confirmations a transaction has, the more secure its placement in the blockchain is.
4. Did Nexus hold an ICO? How is Nexus funded? The Nexus Embassy, a 501(C)(3) not-for-profit corporation, develops and maintains the Nexus blockchain software. When Nexus began under the name Coinshield, the early blocks were mined using the Developer and Exchange (Ambassador) addresses, which provides funding for the Nexus Embassy. The Developer Fund fuels ongoing development and is sourced by a 1.5% commission per block mined, which will slowly increase to 2.5% after 10 years. This brings all the benefits of development funding without the associated risks. The Ambassador (renamed from Exchange) keys are funded by a 20% commission per block reward. These keys are mainly used to pay for marketing, and producing and launching the Nexus satellites. When Nexus introduces developer and ambassador contracts, they will be approved, denied, or removed by six voting groups namely: currency, developer, ambassador, prime, hash, and trust. Please Note: The Nexus Embassy reserves the sole right to trade, sell and or use these funds as required; however, Nexus will endeavor to minimize the impact that the use of these funds has upon the NXS market value.
5. Is there a cap on the number of NXS in existence? After an initial 10-year distribution period ending on September 23rd, 2024, there will be a total of 78 million NXS. Over this period, the reward gradient for mining Nexus follows a decaying logarithmic curve instead of the reward halving inherent in Bitcoin. This avoids creating a situation where older mining equipment is suddenly unprofitable, encouraging miners to continue upgrading their equipment over time and at the same time reducing major market shocks on block halving events. When the distribution period ends, the currency supply will inflate annually by a maximum of 3% via staking and by 1% via the prime and hashing channels. This inflation is completely unlike traditional inflation, which degrades the value of existing coins. Instead, the cost of providing security to the blockchain is paid by inflation, eliminating transaction fees. Colin Cantrell - Nexus Inflation Explained
6. What is the difference between the LLD wallet and the Oracle wallet? Due to the scales of efficiency needed by blockchain, Nexus has developed a custom-built database called the Lower Level Database. Since the development of the LLD wallet 0.2.3.1, which is a precursor to the Tritium updates, you should begin using the LLD wallet to take advantage of the faster load times and improved efficiency. The Oracle wallet is a legacy wallet which is no longer maintained or updated. It utilized the Berkeley DB, which is not designed to meet the needs of a blockchain. Eventually, users will need to migrate to the LLD wallet. Fortunately, the wallet.dat is interchangeable between wallets, so there is no risk of losing access to your NXS.
7. How do I change from Oracle to the LLD wallet? Step 1 - Backup your wallet.dat file. You can do this from within the Oracle wallet Menu, Backup Wallet. Step 2 - Uninstall the Oracle wallet. Close the wallet and navigate to the wallet data directory. On Windows, this is the Nexus folder located at %APPDATA%\Nexus. On macOS, this is the Nexus folder located at ~/Library/Application Support/Nexus. Move all of the contents to a temporary folder as a backup. Step 3 - Copy your backup of wallet.dat into the Nexus folder located as per Step 2. Step 4 - Install the Nexus LLD wallet. Please follow the steps as outlined in the next section. Once your wallet is fully synced, your new wallet will have access to all your addresses.
8. How do I install the Nexus Wallet? You can install your Nexus wallet by following these steps: Step 1 - Download your wallet from www.nexusearth.com. Click the Downloads menu at the top and select the appropriate wallet for your operating system. Step 2 - Unzip the wallet program to a folder. Before running the wallet program, please consider space limitations and load times. On the Windows OS, the wallet saves all data to the %APPDATA%\Nexus folder, including the blockchain, which is currently ~3GB. On macOS, data is saved to the ~/Library/Application Support/Nexus folder. You can create a symbolic link, which will allow you to install this information in another location. Using Windows, follow these steps:
Step 3 (optional) - Before running the wallet, we recommend downloading the blockchain database manually. Nexus Earth maintains a copy of the blockchain data which can save hours from the wallet synchronization process. Please go to www.nexusearth.com and click the Downloads menu. Step 4 (optional) - Extract the database file. This is commonly found in the .zip or .rar format, so you may need a program like 7zip to extract the contents. Please extract it to the relevant directory, as outlined in step 2. Step 5 - You can now start your wallet. After it loads, it should be able to complete synchronization in a short time. This may still take a couple of hours. Once it has completed synchronizing, a green check mark icon will appear in the lower right corner of the wallet. Step 6 - Encrypt your wallet. This can be done within the wallet, under the Settings menu. Encrypting your wallet will lock it, requiring a password in order to send transactions. Step 7 - Backup your wallet.dat file. This can be done from the File menu inside the wallet. This file contains the keys to the addresses in your wallet. You may wish to keep a secure copy of your password somewhere, too, in case you forget it or someone else (your spouse, for example) ever needs it. You should back up your wallet.dat file again any time you create – or a Genesis transaction creates (see “staking” below) – a new address.
Types of Mining or Minting:
1.Can I mine Nexus? Yes, there are 2 channels that you can use to mine Nexus, and 1 channel of minting: Prime Mining Channel This mining channel looks for a special prime cluster of a set length. This type of calculation is resistant to ASIC mining, allowing for greater decentralization. This is most often performed using the CPU. Hashing Channel This channel utilizes the more traditional method of hashing. This process adds a random nonce, hashes the data, and compares the resultant hash against a predetermined format set by the difficulty. This is most often performed using a GPU. Proof of Stake (nPoS) Staking is a form of mining NXS. With this process, you can receive NXS rewards from the network for continuously operating your node (wallet). It is recommended that you only stake with a minimum balance of 1000 NXS. It’s not impossible to stake with less, but it becomes harder to maintain trust. Losing trust resets the interest rate back to 0.5% per annum.
2. How do I mine Nexus? As outlined above, there are two types of mining and 1 proof of stake. Each type of mining uses a different component of your computer to find blocks, the CPU or the GPU. Nexus supports CPU and GPU mining on Windows only. There are also third-party macOS builds available. Please follow the instructions below for the relevant type of miner.
Prime Mining: Almost every CPU is capable of mining blocks on this channel. The most effective method of mining is to join a mining pool and receive a share of the rewards based on the contribution you make. To create your own mining facility, you need the CPU mining software, and a NXS address. This address cannot be on an exchange. You create an address when you install your Nexus wallet. You can find the related steps under How Do I Install the Nexus Wallet? Please download the relevant miner from http://nexusearth.com/mining.html. Please note that there are two different miner builds available: the prime solo miner and the prime pool miner. This guide will walk you through installing the pool miner only. Step 1 - Extract the archive file to a folder. Step 2 - Open the miner.conf file. You can use the default host and port, but these may be changed to a pool of your choice. You will need to change the value of nxs_address to the address found in your wallet. Sieve_threads is the number of CPU threads you want to use to find primes. Ptest_threads is the number of CPU threads you want to test the primes found by the sieve. As a general rule, the number of threads used for the sieve should be 75% of the threads used for testing. It is also recommended to add the following line to the options found in the .conf file: "experimental" : "true" This option enables the miner to use an improved sieve algorithm which will enable your miner to find primes at a faster rate. Step 3 - Run the nexus_cpuminer.exe file. For a description of the information shown in this application, please read this guide.
Hashing: The GPU is a dedicated processing unit housed on-board your graphics card. The GPU is able to perform certain tasks extremely well, unlike your CPU, which is designed for parallel processing. Nexus supports both AMD and Nvidia GPU mining, and works best on the newer models. Officially, Nexus does not support GPU pool mining, but there are 3rd party miners with this capability. The latest software for the Nvidia miner can be found here. The latest software for the AMD miner can be found here. The AMD miner is a third party miner. Information and advice about using the AMD miner can be found on our Slack channel. This guide will walk you through the Nvidia miner. Step 1 - Close your wallet. Navigate to %appdata%\Nexus (~/Library/Application Support/Nexus on macOS) and open the nexus.conf file. Depending on your wallet, you may or may not have this file. If not, please create a new txt file and save it as nexus.conf You will need to add the following lines before restarting your wallet:
Step 2 - Extract the files into a new folder. Step 3 - Run the nexus.bat file. This will run the miner and deposit any rewards for mining a block into the account on your wallet. For more information on either Prime Mining or Hashing, please join our Slack and visit the #mining channel. Additional information can be found here.
3. How do I stake Nexus? Once you have your wallet installed, fully synchronized and encrypted, you can begin staking by:
Choosing Unlock Wallet from the Settings menu
Check the box that says "Unlock for Mint Only", then enter your password.
When the question mark at the lower right of the wallet window changes to a clock icon, you are now staking.
After you begin staking, you will receive a Genesis transaction as your first staking reward. This establishes a Trust key in your wallet and stakes your wallet balance on that key. From that point, you will periodically receive additional Trust transactions as further staking rewards for as long as your Trust key remains active. IMPORTANT - After you receive a Genesis transaction, backup your wallet.dat file immediately. You can select the Backup Wallet option from the File menu, or manually copy the file directly. If you do not do this, then your Nexus balance will be staked on the Trust key that you do not have backed up, and you risk loss if you were to suffer a hard drive failure or other similar problem. In the future, signature chains will make this precaution unnecessary.
4. I am staking with my Nexus balance. What are interest rate, trust weight, block weight, and stake weight? These items affect the size and frequency of staking rewards after you receive your initial Genesis transaction. When staking is active, the wallet displays a clock icon in the bottom right corner. If you hover your mouse pointer over the icon, a tooltip-style display will open up, showing their current values. Please remember to backup your wallet.dat file (see question 3 above) after you receive a Genesis transaction. Interest Rate - The minting rate at which you will receive staking rewards, displayed as an annual percentage of your NXS balance. It starts at 0.5%, increasing to 3% after 12 months. The rate increase is not linear but slows over time. It takes several weeks to reach 1% and around 3 months to reach 2%. With this rate, you can calculate the average amount of NXS you can expect to receive each day for staking. Trust Weight - An indication of how much the network trusts your node. It starts at 5% and increases much more quickly than the minting (interest) rate, reaching 100% after one month. Your level of trust increases your stake weight (below), thus increasing your chances of receiving staking transactions. It becomes easier to maintain trust as this value increases. Block Weight - Upon receipt of a Genesis transaction, this value will begin increasing slowly, reaching 100% after 24 hours. Every time you receive a staking transaction, the block weight resets. If your block weight reaches 100%, then your Trust key expires and everything resets (0.5% interest rate, 5% trust weight, waiting for a new Genesis transaction). This 24-hour requirement will be replaced by a gradual decay in the Tritium release. As long as you receive a transaction before it decays completely, you will hold onto your key. This change addresses the potential of losing your trust key after months of staking simply because of one unlucky day receiving trust transactions. Stake Weight - The higher your stake weight, the greater your chance of receiving a transaction. The exact value is a derived by a formula using your trust weight and block weight, which roughly equals the average of the two. Thus, each time you receive a transaction, your stake weight will reset to approximately half of your current level of trust.
Tron v8.7.0 (2016-02-24) // More improvements to telemetry; update subtools; fix Stage 4 stalling bugs
Tron is a script that "fights for the User." Think of it as a "tech-on-a-thumb-drive" that automates the majority of tedious work involved in disinfecting and cleaning up a Windows system. The goal is ~85-90% automation, with the understanding that some things will always be better left to the discretion of the tech. It is built with heavy reliance on community input and updated regularly. Bug reports, critiques and suggestions are welcome and will be responded to quickly (see how NOT to report bugs). If you have issues with this release, post a top-level comment and myself or one of the mods will answer, typically in <12 hours.
Secondary: BT Sync is no longer recommended due to issues with very high swarm node count (fails to replicate reliably). Use SyncThing or download from one of the static pack mirrors instead.
Tertiary: Connect to the SyncThing repo (instructions) to get fixes/updates immediately. This method is in TESTING may not be reliable.
Quaternary : Source code All the code for Tron is available here on Github (Note: this doesn't include many of the utilities Tron relies on to function). If you want to view the code without downloading a ~500MB package, or want to contribute to the project, Github is a good place to do it.
Tron has full command-line support. All flags are optional, can be combined, and override their respective script default when used.
Usage: tron.bat [-a -c -d -dev -e -er -m -o -p -r -sa -sdb -sd -sdc -se -sfr -sk -sm -sp -spr -srr -ss -str -sw -v -x] | [-h] Optional flags (can be combined): -a Automatic mode (no welcome screen or prompts; implies -e) -c Config dump (display current config. Can be used with other flags to see what WOULD happen, but script will never execute if this flag is used) -d Dry run (run through script without executing any jobs) -dev Override OS detection (allow running on unsupported Windows versions) -e Accept EULA (suppress display of disclaimer warning screen) -er Email a report when finished. Requires you to configure SwithMailSettings.xml -m Preserve OEM Metro apps (don't remove them) -np Skip the pause at the end of the script -o Power off after running (overrides -r) -p Preserve power settings (don't reset power settings to default) -r Reboot automatically (auto-reboot 30 seconds after completion) -sa Skip anti-virus scans (MBAM, KVRT, Sophos) -sdb Skip de-bloat (OEM bloatware removal; implies -m) -sd Skip defrag (force Tron to ALWAYS skip Stage 5 defrag) -sdc Skip DISM component (SxS store) cleanup -se Skip Event Log clearing -sfr Skip filesystem permissions reset (saves time if you're in a hurry) -sk Skip Kaspersky Virus Rescue Tool (KVRT) scan -sm Skip Malwarebytes Anti-Malware (MBAM) installation -sp Skip patches (do not patch 7-Zip, Java Runtime, Adobe Flash or Reader) -spr Skip page file settings reset (don't set to "Let Windows manage the page file") -srr Skip registry permissions reset (saves time if you're in a hurry) -ss Skip Sophos Anti-Virus (SAV) scan -str Skip Telemetry Removal (don't remove Windows user tracking, Win7 and up only) -sw Skip Windows Updates (do not attempt to run Windows Update) -v Verbose. Show as much output as possible. NOTE: Significantly slower! -x Self-destruct. Tron deletes itself after running and leaves logs intact Misc flags (must be used alone): -h Display this help text
\tron\integrity_verification\checksums.txt contains SHA-256 checksums for every file and is signed with my PGP key (0x07d1490f82a211a2; included). You can use this to verify package integrity. Donations (bitcoin): 1CcijZp5wjE6PukU4xejKKqvicxnYkZKxS QuietProfessionals
PSA: Stop spelling the Bitcoin fraudulent site correctly - It only helps them as search engines pick it up. Use: bitcoin,com | bitcoin .com | bitcoin (.) com | bitcoindotcom | ... (153 points, 52 comments)
The Monero Missives (weekly report) - September 16th, 2014
Original post is here Monero Missives September 15th, 2014 Hello, and welcome to our twelfth Monero Missive! This is our first Missive after a bit of a break whilst we thwarted two related blockchain attacks. Nonetheless, we have not sat by idly, we have been finalising and completing a brand new aspect of Monero designed to protect your privacy now and in the future: the Monero Research Lab Major Updates
The Monero Research Lab is an open collective and a multi-faceted academic group focused on the ongoing improvement of Monero. Membership is not fixed, and comes and goes as researchers become interested in Monero. This isn't a group focused on the addition of "features" to Monero, but rather the analysis and improvement of the underlying core of Monero to make sure that the theories and cryptography behind Monero continue to remain robust and sound. With that in mind, we are proud to announce the release of the first two publications out of the Monero Research Lab: MRL-0001 - A Note on Chain Reactions in Traceability in CryptoNote 2.0 - this is a research bulletin that investigates how a chain reaction could weaken the blockchain resistance properties of CryptoNote's ring signatures if low mixin values are consistently chosen MRL-0002 - Counterfeiting via Merkle Tree Exploits within Virtual Currencies Employing the CryptoNote Protocol - in this research bulletin we investigate how the block 202612 attack occurred and what it exploited, and also covers the permanent fix we have put in place
This week Friday we're going to have our second #Monero-Dev Fireside Chat this week Friday, September 19th, 2014, at 10:00 EST which is 14:00 UTC and 16:00 UTC +2. For a full table of the time zones you can refer to this image, or you can use this online tool to add your city and make sure you have the correct starting time. Please note that this is a developer event, and so most of the focus will be from that perspective.
To pick up where we left off with our last Missive, we are also happy to announce the availability of Monero merchandise on the Monero Gear store, powered by Zazzle. The advantage of us using Zazzle is that it is on-demand and we never have to worry about print runs or stock or anything. In return we get 15% of each sale as a "royalty" that will go towards enabling further Monero development, although Zazzle do not (yet!) accept Bitcoin or Monero. We hope to add new designs to the store on a regular basis. You can check the store out here: http://www.zazzle.com/monerogear* or take a peek at some of the new designs right here
We are also pleased to announce the release of URS, a Monero project written in Go that allows you to sign messages using ring signatures as part of a group. The signature can be verified, but it cannot be determined which one of the signatories in the group did the actual signing (just like Monero uses for transactional unlinkability!). You can take a look at the project here: https://github.com/monero-project/urs, and the Bitcointalk thread dedicated to the project is here: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=768499.0
We have a new tagged release, 0.8.8.4, available for download (binaries: Windows, Mac, Linux, FreeBSD). This adds the following features: Testnet: we now have an operating testnet. When using bitmonerod or simplewallet you can now use the --testnet flag to use testnet instead of mainnet. Feel free to run a mining node or just a testnet node, we will be setting up email alerts for testnet nodes when an update is pending (although having a few older testnet nodes on the network won't hurt testing). FreeBSD Compatability: Monero now works on FreeBSD out the box. We will add it to the ports tree soon. At the moment compilation is no different from regular Linux and Unix compilation, and the same dependencies apply. GPG commits: we have begun GPG-signing commits and merges. This is an important step in maintaining the integrity of the codebase, and will ensure that any compromise of our computers or even the github account won't allow a malicious attacker to push code to the repository without the unsigned commits being spotted. Verification can be done by running 'git log --show-signature', which will show and verify signatures. An example of what you should see can be found here Versioning: versioning is a lot easier, now, as tagged releases from 0.8.8.4 onwards will show version-final (eg. 0.8.8.4-final) as their version, and those built between tagged releases will show version-commithash (eg. 0.8.8.4-9088ea1). We expect this will greatly aid in debugging problems, as we can immediately pinpoint the actual version / commit a user is on. Logging: default log levels have been adjusted so that non-critical warnings are now relegated to log-level 1 and above. Apart from the normal reorganisation notifications, the only messages in red that should show up in the daemon are actual errors.
Dev Diary Core: because of all of the rapid changes that we had to merge into master to deal with the aftermath of the block 202612 attack, we have to bring the development branch in sync. At this stage the development branch should not be considered usable until the rebase is complete. Build: the big change is FreeBSD compatibility, as mentioned above. A more subtle change is that the build will now first look for miniupnpc on the local system, and use that if found. If it fails to find miniupnpc it will fall back to the local copy. Build: there is a new Makefile target, release-static, that builds statically linked binaries for redistribution. At this stage it forces 64-bit builds, once we have the embedded database working cleanly we can remove this. Wallet: per-kb fees are nearly complete, and will be deployed to testnet within the next week or so. Once some thorough testing has been done on testnet we can merge this into master, and transaction fees can return to "normal". Blockchain: this took a bit of a backseat with the blockchain attacks. Now that things are back to some semblance of normality, the first implementation can be written. We have chosen LMDB for the initial implementation, as this will allow us to rapidly write a Berkeley DB interface based off of it (they use similar APIs) and thus have a baseline for performance comparisons. Core: all non-critical "errors" and warnings have been moved to log-level 1. As a developer, you may find it useful to run log-level 1 or 2 as your default. Until next week!
start IRC client, edit: user name, user "real name" and identity (all can reveal who you are!) 
connect to IRC server: 127.0.0.1 port 6668 - done :) now choose irc channel: /join #salt for freedom/cryptoanarchy/etc news and talk #i2p for technical questions . there is also #bitcoin (connected to freenode irc) and #dogecoin ( :o ) and #litecoin and #namecoin and #freenet and more channels are listed
WARNING: if you connect few times e.g. start 2 irc clients, without waiting half hour in between, then it might be possible to correlate that you are "same person/computer" between this 2 identities  in many cases real name or identity is copied from system user name, so on say Linux you might want to create new user called x or irc or something and run from him (irssi) or edit configuration in IRC client program
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